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                         **  VERSION  3.2  **

 

Daedalus: The world’s most sophisticated Maze program! :)

Daedalus is a program that allows one to create, solve, analyze, view, walk through, and most of all have fun with Mazes. Daedalus is 100% freeware with no registration fee! It runs on all versions of Windows supporting 32 bit applications, ranging from Windows 95 to Windows 10 and beyond.

The file is divided into seven sections:

·         1) Daedalus feature list: A list of the main features of the program.

·         2) Introduction to Daedalus: A summary of the program, what it does, and how it’s organized.

·         3) Daedalus menus: A list of each menu and menu command in the program, and documentation for it.

·         4) Other features of Daedalus: Documentation for other ways to interface with the program other than menu commands, such as mouse clicks.

·         5) Daedalus examples: How to use Daedalus to accomplish specific scenarios, namely create and solve Mazes of irregular shapes.

·         6) Daedalus files: A list of the files that comes with the Daedalus install, and what each file is for.

·         7) Daedalus history: A timeline of all the versions of Daedalus that have been released, and the main things introduced in each.

 

DAEDALUS FEATURE LIST

Maze creation methods:

·         Perfect Mazes (standard simply connected Mazes).

·         Braid Mazes (Mazes without dead ends).

·         Unicursal Mazes (Mazes consisting of a single path without junctions).

·         Labyrinths (special unicursal Mazes used for spiritual purposes).

·         Custom Labyrinths (where you specify their circuit sequence).

·         3D Mazes.

·         4D Mazes.

·         N-dimensional Mazes up to 18 dimensions.

·         Weave Mazes (2D Mazes with over and under passages).

·         Crack Mazes (Mazes with passages at random angles).

·         Arrow Mazes where you can’t go against the arrows.

·         Theta Mazes (Mazes with passages in concentric circles).

·         Delta Mazes (Mazes composed of interlocking triangles).

·         Sigma Mazes (Mazes composed of interlocking hexagons).

·         Upsilon Mazes (Mazes composed of interlocking octagons and squares).

·         Zeta Mazes (orthogonal Mazes with diagonal passages).

·         Mazes on non-standard topology, e.g. on surface of a Moebius strip or cube.

·         Mazes composed of interlocking spirals.

·         Nested cell fractal Mazes (Mazes composed of smaller Mazes).

·         Hilbert curve fractal Labyrinths (Labyrinths composed of smaller Labyrinths).

·         Infinite recursive fractal Mazes (Mazes containing copies of itself).

·         Hypermazes (3D Mazes where you move a line, with the solution a surface).

·         Standard Mazes generated with a recursive backtracking algorithm.

·         Standard Mazes generated with Prim’s algorithm.

·         Standard Mazes generated with Kruskal’s algorithm.

·         Standard Mazes generated with the Aldous-Broder algorithm.

·         Standard Mazes generated with Wilson’s algorithm.

·         Standard Mazes generated with Eller’s algorithm.

·         Standard Mazes generated with the Growing Tree or Growing Forest algorithms.

·         Standard Mazes generated with the Sidewinder algorithm.

·         Standard Mazes generated by making a binary tree.

·         Standard Mazes generated by adding walls instead of carving passages.

·         Infinitely long Mazes limited only by your patience or disk space!

Maze solving methods:

·         Dead end filler.

·         Blind alley fillers.

·         Wall follower.

·         Recursive backtracker.

·         Shortest path finder.

·         All shortest paths finder.

·         Collision solver.

·         Cul-de-sac filler.

Maze creating utilities:

·         Create Mazes where you specify the shape and computer does the rest.

·         Create Mazes where you specify the solution and the computer does the rest.

·         Create biased Mazes with passages tending to go along one axis.

·         Create Mazes with “run” tending to have longer straightaways.

·         Create Mazes with symmetric passages.

·         Create “segmented” Mazes with different sections having different textures.

Maze solving utilities:

·         Walk through a Maze in a 3D first person perspective view from inside.

·         Semitransparent walls you can see through in 3D first person view.

·         Fog effects where walls fade into the distance in 3D first person view.

·         Texture mapped walls and ground decorated with pictures in 1st person view.

·         “Breadcrumbs” feature to mark your path while in 3D first person view.

·         Partial dead end fillers (see how the main false paths are arranged).

·         “Radar” feature to prevent you from entering short blind alleys.

·         Flood passages and walls.

·         Distance graph features to show how far all points are from each other.

Other Maze utilities:

·         Find and reconnect all detached walls in a Maze.

·         Find and break into all inaccessible sections in a Maze.

·         Remove all dead ends from a Maze (converting to a Braid Maze).

·         Find all bottlenecks in a Maze (areas that all solutions go through).

·         Add more walls to a Maze (that won’t create inaccessible sections).

·         Add and remove entrances.

·         Analyze passages (count dead ends, junctions, longest passages, etc).

·         Analyze walls (count corners, straight sections, longest walls, etc).

·         Timer to measure how long it takes you to get through a Maze.

·         Move counter to measure the distance you travel through a Maze.

Extra graphics features:

·         Display passages and walls in any color.

·         Display using color fades and rainbow fades.

·         Overlay two or even three images together.

·         Zoom, flip, rotate, smooth, thicken, and make thinner bitmaps.

·         Create antialiased color images.

·         Draw 3D orthographic overviews of bitmaps and 3D bitmaps.

·         Draw perspective views of bitmaps with an infinite vanishing point.

·         Draw truly perspective 3D scenes of bitmaps or other objects.

Macro and scripting features:

·         Automate actions or write whole programs in macros and script files.

·         Sample games: Nine Survivor Maze challenges - Find checkpoints in the Mazes.

·         Sample games: Two Carleton Farm simulations - Find hidden message in the corn Mazes.

·         Sample game: Glacier Maze simulation - Fun with bridges in a fence Maze.

·         Sample game: Stocker Farms simulation - Explore a Halloween corn Maze.

·         Sample game: Safari Maze simulation - A fence Maze with towers and tunnels.

·         Sample game: 4D Maze - Walk through a 4D Maze from a first person view.

·         Sample game: 5D Mazes - Animate and solve Mazes in up to 18 dimensions!

·         Sample game: Gigamaze - Walk through a Maze larger than the planet!

·         Sample game: Word Mazes - Create Mazes in the shapes of words.

·         Sample game: Mouse Maze - Move with your mouse, but don’t hit a wall.

·         Sample game: Dragonslayer - Fight creatures in a random 3D dungeon.

·         Sample game: 3D Pac-Man - The classic arcade video game reproduced.

·         Sample game: 3D Sokoban - The Japanese box pushing puzzle game.

·         Sample game: The Hunger Games - Fight to be the last person standing.

·         Sample game: Survivor squares challenge - Run the computer out of room.

·         Sample game: Pentris - Like Tetris but with polyomonies composed of 5 and 6 squares.

·         Sample game: Mandelbrot set simulation - Explore fractals in 3D.

For a quick demo of some of the cool things Daedalus can do, start the program, press the “Shift+V” key to create a Weave Maze, select “Weave To Inside” on the Maze menu to start exploring a first person perspective view of the Maze, then use the arrow keys and try to reach the exit. Notice the bridges you can climb over and go under.

 

INTRODUCTION TO DAEDALUS

Daedalus can be considered a glorified bitmap editor. The content you work with in Daedalus are basically bitmaps, usually monochrome bitmaps of Mazes. What you see in the Daedalus window is always a view of a bitmap. This may be either the entire bitmap, a magnified subsection of it, or a special view of some part of it, such as a 3D first person perspective view from inside a Maze bitmap.

The simplest Mazes in Daedalus are orthogonal where each passage and wall is one pixel wide. For these standard Mazes it’s assumed the even numbered rows and columns are walls, and the odd number rows and columns are passages. The default settings for the Daedalus window have walls be white “on” pixels while passages are black “off” pixels. Note when printing you probably want the colors reversed, as the background of paper is white while things printed on it are black. You may also want the walls to be thinner than the passages. It’s easy to change these things in the program so they look the way you want: Use the Zoom Bias command on the Maze menu to set passage and wall size, use Invert All on the All submenu of the Bitmap menu to reverse the screen, or change the Passage and Wall color in the Set Colors dialog on the Edit menu to reverse the colors permanently. An easier way to change these settings is simply to select the Polished Mazes command on the Create menu, i.e. press the “/” key to put the current and all future Mazes in a form ready to print.

There are two types of bitmap in Daedalus: (1) The main bitmap, which most commands operate upon. In most cases what you see in the window is this main monochrome bitmap. (2) The color bitmap, which can have pixels in any 24 bit RGB color value. If you’re not viewing the main bitmap, you’re viewing the color bitmap, where you can switch back and forth between them. The contents of the color bitmap are often a variant on the main bitmap, e.g. the main bitmap indicates where walls are in a Maze while the color bitmap indicates the color of the walls and floor, where certain commands set the contents of the color bitmap based on the main bitmap. Both types of bitmaps above can exist in three locations, for six bitmaps total: (a) The main bitmap and main color bitmap, which is what’s being viewed or operated upon. (b) The temporary bitmap, which the main monochrome or color bitmaps can be copied to or from. Some commands may change or use this bitmap, and you can also copy to or from it yourself as an undo buffer. (c) The extra bitmap, which is like another temporary bitmap.

3D Mazes and similar Maze types are expressed as a list of 2D bitmaps arranged next to each other within a larger bitmap, one subbitmap per level in the “3D bitmap”.

When you start Daedalus, you’ll see a 63x63 pixel bitmap with a 31x31 passage Maze drawn within it. The default display settings zoom the bitmap so it fills as much of the window as possible, even though the internal bitmap is still only 63x63. The easiest thing to do with the program is select the commands on the Create menu to draw various types of Mazes. You probably want to use the size changing menu commands to make the bitmap and hence the Mazes you create on it larger or smaller. Daedalus however is mainly designed to be an advanced Maze editing environment. All the various commands may seem confusing at first, where the program has 465 separate menu commands and 21 dialogs. In general you can do anything in Daedalus, although it may take several steps and some thought about what steps to take to do what you want.

To learn about different types of Mazes and ways to create and solve them, see http://www.astrolog.org/labyrnth/algrithm.htm for a Maze algorithms page, and http://www.astrolog.org/labyrnth/glossary.htm for a dictionary of Maze terms.

 

DAEDALUS MENUS

File Menu: This contains all commands dealing with loading to or saving from the main bitmap. It also deals with settings for files, and has system commands concerning the program in general such as the About dialog.

Edit Menu: This deals with all low level operations of the program. This includes clipboard commands, random number settings, and the program’s timer. It also deals with fundamental display settings, such as the color palette being used, and how to draw the current bitmap being viewed.

Dot Menu: This contains everything dealing with “the dot”. The dot is like a cursor positioned over a particular pixel on the bitmap. The dot can be moved around, the bitmap can be edited based on the dot, and special displays can be centered on the dot like the 3D first person inside view where the dot indicates where you are.

Bitmap Menu: This contains general graphics commands that operate on the bitmap as a whole, such as clearing, resizing, zooming, and copying. Some of these commands only operate on the main monochrome bitmap, but most will do a similar action on the color bitmap if the color bitmap is being shown.

Color Menu: This contains all commands affecting the color bitmap, such as the ability to load or copy to it, and save or copy from it. Most commands set the color bitmap in an interesting way based on other bitmaps, although some operate on the color bitmap itself.

Maze Menu: This is similar to the Bitmap menu but contains commands that operate on the main bitmap that are associated with Mazes. This includes Maze generation commands that use what’s already on the screen as a basis of what they do.

Create Menu: This contains all the ways of creating different types of Mazes and Labyrinths. Most of these commands will draw a 100% computer generated Maze within the bounds of the main bitmap.

Solve Menu: This contains all the ways of partially or completely solving different types of Mazes.

Draw Menu: This contains advanced graphic commands which operate on the main bitmap or other data in memory and have as their result another bitmap. This includes simple orthographic views of 2D and 3D bitmaps, along with general wireframe and polygon based true perspective graphics scenes. These aren’t related to Mazes, but can be used to create nice displays of Mazes or other things.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - FILE MENU

File Menu: This menu contains all commands dealing with loading to or saving from the main bitmap. It also deals with settings for files, and has system commands dealing with the program in general such as the About dialog.

Open...: This allows one to open any file into the program so long as Daedalus supports its format. Daedalus will determine what type of file is being opened and do the right thing with it. This is basically a union of the Open Bitmap, Open Text, Open X11 Bitmap, Open 3D Bitmap, Open Script, Open Color Targa File, Open Wireframe, and Open Patches commands.

Run Script: This submenu allows automatically running any of the 28 scripts that come with the program. To run a script, you can also manually select the script file in the Open or Open Script dialogs, or double click the file for the script outside the program altogether. All scripts also have an icon in the Daedalus program group created by setup, that will run it. Note in every script that comes with Daedalus, you can press F1 to display a help message, listing what all the keys defined in that script do, and without affecting anything else in the script.

Demos: This script displays a menu of 18 demonstrations of Daedalus features. Once the script is loaded, press the following:

F2: Animates yourself randomly moving though a Maze with different colored walls. Notice the gradual changes between day and night.
Shift+F2: Animates yourself moving through a 3D Maze.
F3: Displays a series of random Mazes created with different algorithms, one after another.
Shift+F3: Creates a series of Mazes in different algorithms, where you can see the Mazes get generated.
F4: Draws an orthographic view looking across a Maze with 3D walls.
Shift+F4: Draws a perspective view of looking down on a Maze from above.
F5: Draws a Planair style Maze on the surface of six cubes, seen face on.
Shift+F5: Draws a Planair style Maze on the surface of eight cubes, seen edge on.
F6: Draws a rainbow colored Chartres Cathedral pattern Labyrinth. Press “i” to enter first person view where you can walk through it.
Shift+F6: Draws a rainbow colored classical seven circuit Labyrinth.
F7: Animates you flying over a Maze with 3D walls, seen in perspective and color.
Shift+F7: Animates you flying over a 2D Maze drawn on the ground, seen in perspective and monochrome.
F8: Draws an orthographic view of the Escher room in the ESCHER.D3 sample file.
Shift+F8: Draws an orthographic view of the castle from the CASTLE.D3 sample file.
F9: Does animations of a random cyclic cellular automaton, where colors of the rainbow flow into each other.
Shift+F9: Does a colored animation of random sequences of the game of “Life”.
F10: Draws a perspective scene of geometrical shapes, from the SOLIDS.DP sample file.
Shift+F10: Animates you flying around the scene of geometrical shapes.

Word Mazes: This script creates Mazes in the shapes of words. You specify a line of letters or characters you want to use to form the Maze. The Maze can be drawn inside letters, be a rectangular Maze with letter shaped open spaces within, or the letters can spell out the solution to the Maze in an obvious or hidden fashion.

World's Largest Maze: This script allows you to explore a Maze, however the Mazes created here are enormous, and measure at least a billion passages on each side, and have one quintillion or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 or 10^18 cells total! A life size version of one of these Gigamazes, with five feet between passages, would cover the surface of the Earth over 4500 times. Visiting one cell per second, it would take over 31 years just to walk from one side of the Maze to the opposite side, and that’s assuming no walls are in your way! Wall following to actually solve the Maze will take on average 31 billion years. A bitmap of one of these Mazes would require 500 million gigabytes of RAM to store in memory all at once, therefore only the parts of the Maze near your location are actually loaded into memory at any one time, like a view under a magnifying glass. Each Maze is perfect with exactly one solution, where although the Maze is “virtual”, each section of a given Maze will be generated the same way every time you visit it. This uses the program’s nested cell fractal Maze algorithm to generate the parts of the Maze being viewed. The Mazes here can be considered the largest finite Mazes ever created, and perhaps the hardest puzzles ever too. The above is only for 2D Mazes: You can also explore 3D Mazes of a billion x billion x billion passages, for one octillion or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 or 10^27 cells total, and a life size version would fill the Earth’s volume over three million times!

4D Mazes: This script allows you to explore a four dimensional Maze from a first person perspective! The fourth dimension is represented by magic portals which go forward and back through time or space, so the 4D Maze is seen as a sequence of 3D Mazes. This is one of the few games that allow you to experience a 4D Maze in first person.

5D Mazes: This script creates Mazes in multiple dimensions. You can create a Maze with anywhere from 2 to 18 dimensions, where you see a 5 dimensional Maze to begin with upon starting the script. Multidimensional Mazes are expressed in wireframe form here, with a line for each passage. Each dimension has its own horizontal and vertical offsets, like the 3 axes of a cube have when a cube is drawn on a plane. The whole Maze animates by default too, which helps distinguish different dimensions which may overlap at times. Note watching Mazes or cubes with a high number of dimensions animate may cause dizziness or headaches. Don’t say you weren’t warned! ;)

Dragonslayer Game: This script is a dungeons and dragons type game taking place within a multiple level Maze. It’s a simplified first person perspective version of computer games like Rogue or Nethack. Your goal is to find your way down to an evil dragon, and slay him. You can fight 26 different monsters and use 50 different items. For more about this game see http://www.astrolog.org/labyrnth/daedalus/dragon.htm.

Pac-Man Game: This script is a reproduction of the old arcade video game of the same name, with the exact same Maze and all, but you play from a 3D first person view. Your goal is to eat all the dots in the Maze, avoiding the monsters which want to eat you.

Sokoban Game: This script is a 3D first person view version of the box pushing game Sokoban (Japanese for “warehouse keeper”). There are 85 levels total, which are the standard 85 levels seen in some other Sokoban implementations. I’ve given a unique title to each level.

The Hunger Games: This script is inspired by “The Hunger Games”, as seen in the novels by Suzanne Collins and the movies by Lionsgate Films. This simulation is a last person standing fight, where you and 23 computer controlled opponents (number customizable) engage in a massive “battle royal”. As in the Hunger Games, there’s a central “cornucopia” building filled with melee and ranged weapons along with food and other gear, surrounded by wilderness in which one can hide or forage. The arena landscape includes forest, meadows, mountains, lakes, and rivers, along with options for desert, plains, swamp, island, buildings, and a giant Maze. Tributes can climb things such as trees and mountains, dig up things from the ground or chip them off mountains, and swim in water. You can also form alliances, and backstab or be backstabbed by your allies. Beware of the aggressive “muttation” monsters roaming the arena. For more about this game see http://www.astrolog.org/labyrnth/daedalus/hunger.htm.

Survivor Maze #1: This script is a Maze solving game, where you have to find and visit five checkpoints located within a Maze in order and then exit, all as fast as you can. This is a copy of the Maze from the episode 5 immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor II: The Australian Outback”.

Survivor Maze #2: This script is similar to the first Survivor Maze game. You start in the center of a circular Maze, where you must visit five checkpoints in order, and after each checkpoint you must return to the center. Returning to the center after the final checkpoint finishes the game and will display your time, and you’re rewarded by getting to climb the central stand and look out over the Maze. This is a copy of the Maze from the episode 6 immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor IV: Marquesas”.

Survivor Maze #3: This script is another similar Maze game. You start in the center of a diamond shaped Maze, where you must visit four checkpoints in the four corners in any order, then return to the center when done. You have the option of trying to solve the Maze blindfolded, where you get messages when you move into or feel a wall next to you. This is a copy of the Maze from the final four immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor VI: Amazon”.

Survivor Maze #4: This script is similar to the other Survivor Maze games. You start in the center of a star shaped Maze, where you must visit eight checkpoints in the eight points in any order, returning to the center after each. Note some passages are clogged with pole obstacles you have to weave through. This is a copy of the Maze from the final four immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor VIII: All Stars”.

Survivor Maze #5: This script is similar to the other Survivor Maze games. You start outside at the base of an eight level vertical Maze, where you must visit ten checkpoints within the Maze in any order, returning to the outside after each. This is a copy of the Maze from the final four immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor IX: Vanuatu”.

Survivor Maze #6: This script is similar to the other Survivor Maze games. The Maze is in the shape of the Seven Macaw, an ancient Maya bird deity. You start at its tail, where you must visit six checkpoints within the Maze in any order, visiting the pyramid in the middle after each. This is a copy of the Maze from the final four immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor XI: Guatemala”.

Survivor Maze #7: This script is similar to the other Survivor Maze games. You need to navigate your way through five Mazes in sequence, finding a key within each before exiting. You have the option of trying to solve the Mazes blindfolded, where everything is dark and you can only see (i.e. feel) the walls directly in front of you. This is a copy of the Maze from the final five immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor XIV: Fiji”.

Survivor Maze #8: This script is similar to the other Survivor Maze games. You need to navigate your way through the Maze, finding four checkpoints within it in any order, before reaching the center. You have the option of trying to solve the Maze blindfolded, where everything is dark and you can only see (i.e. feel) the walls directly in front of you. This is a copy of the Maze from the final four immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor XX: Heroes vs. Villains”. A video of the Survivor contestants in the real life version of this Maze can be seen at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fp6DgPHBkkA.

Survivor Maze #9: This is one more script similar to the other Survivor Maze games. You need to navigate your way through the Maze, finding four checkpoints within it in any other, before reaching the goal. You have the option of trying to solve the exact Maze the Survivors went through, or solving a randomly generated Maze. This is a copy of the Maze from the final four immunity challenge in the CBS TV show “Survivor XXII: Redemption Island”. A video of the Survivor contestants in the real life version of this Maze can be seen at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_x6HVvdOq5g.

Survivor Maze #10: This is one final script similar to the other Survivor Maze games. You need to navigate your way through the Maze, finding four checkpoints within it in any order, before reaching the finish. You have the option of trying to solve the Maze blindfolded, where everything is dark and you can only see (i.e. feel) the walls directly in front of you. This is a copy of the Maze from the final five immunity challenge in the CBS TV show "Survivor XXX: World’s Apart". A video of the Survivor contestants in the real life version of this Maze can be seen at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAow6IWqkcI.

The table below summarizes the ten Survivor Maze scripts available in Daedalus. Listed is the season number and season name of Survivor that the real life version of the Maze appeared in, the number of checkpoints the Survivors had to find within the Maze, whether the Maze is 3D and has passages that cross over other passages, whether the script can create randomized versions of the Maze with alternate passage arrangements or checkpoint positions, whether the Survivors had to do the Maze blindfolded meaning the user has the option to do so as well, and finally the number of players or teams that were trying to solve the real life version of the Maze.

#   Survivor Season        Checkpoints  3D   Random  Blind  Players  Winner

1   2 Outback              5            no   Yes     no     2        Ogakor tribe

2   4 Marquesas            5            no   Yes     no     2        Rotu tribe

3   6 Amazon               4            no   no      Yes    4        Jenna

4   8 All Stars            8            no   no      no     4        Amber

5   9 Vanuatu              10           Yes  no      no     4        Chris

6   11 Guatemala           6            Yes  no      no     4        Rafe

7   14 Fiji                5            no   no      Yes    5        Yau-Man

8   20 Heroes vs Villains  4            no   no      Yes    4        Russell

9   22 Redemption Island   4            no   Yes     no     4        Boston Rob

10  30 World's Apart       4            no   no      Yes    5        Mike

Carleton Farm Maze #1: This script simulates the 2009 Carleton Farm corn Maze near Everett, WA. This Maze has passages in the shape of a horse drawn carriage, and in it you seek out 10 checkpoints in any order to spell out a hidden message.

Carleton Farm Maze #2: This script simulates the 2010 Carleton Farm corn Maze near Everett, WA. This Maze has passages in the shape of two bees, and in it you seek out 10 checkpoints in any order to spell out a hidden message.

Stocker Farms Maze: This script simulates a corn Maze plan grown at Stocker Farms in Snohomish, Washington. The cornfield actually contains two separate Mazes, both of which have their entrances and exits marked in a starting courtyard. There are two bridges within the Mazes, one of which you can pass under as well as climb over. There’s also a Halloween themed “Field of Screams” passage, which causes the day scene to turn into dark night when you enter it. :)

Glacier Maze: This script simulates Glacier Maze, a wooden fence Maze located outside Glacier National Park, Montana. Your goal is to enter the Maze, find four different colored checkpoints located in towers in each of the four corners in any order, then find the exit. This is a good demonstration of the variable height walls feature of Daedalus, where you can climb over and go under bridges, enter towers and buildings, bump into fences and picnic tables, and so on.

Safari Maze: This script simulates an imaginary Maze where you need to hunt down and visit the four checkpoints in any order and then find the exit. The Maze has several 3D aspects to it, specifically bridges to climb over and go under, and a high central tower you start on along with tunnels that go through that tower.

Mouse Maze: This script plays a game where you move the mouse pointer through a mostly unicursal Maze as fast as possible, while avoiding bumping into walls.

Survivor Squares Game: This script plays a non-Maze game where you move on a game board and try to run the other seven computer players out of room before running out of room yourself. Squared Off reproduces the episode 9 immunity challenge from the original CBS “Survivor” series.

Mandelbrot Set Fractal: This non-Maze related script demonstrates the famous Mandelbrot set fractal. You can zoom in on parts of the fractal, display 3D overviews of it, and even walk among a 3D version of the fractal in the perspective inside view.

Pentris Game: This non-Maze related script implements the game of Pentris. Pentris is like Tetris but more challenging because it includes five (and even six) square polyominoes in addition to the standard four square tetrominoes, and you can select which sizes of polyominoes you want to include in a game.

Open Bitmap...: This loads a Windows bitmap file into either the main bitmap or color bitmap. If the file is a monochrome bitmap it gets loaded into the main bitmap, and if color it gets loaded into the color bitmap.

Save Bitmap...: This saves the main bitmap to a monochrome Windows bitmap file. Colors used in the file will be the current colors for on and off pixels from the Set Colors dialog. If Show Color Bitmap is on, this instead saves the color bitmap to a 24 bit color Windows bitmap file.

Open Text...: This loads a plain text file into the main bitmap. Each space character in the file becomes an off pixel, while each character with an ASCII value of “#” or higher becomes an on pixel. The length of the longest line in the file becomes the horizontal size of the bitmap, while the number of lines in the file becomes the vertical size. Lines shorter than the maximum line length are filled in with off pixels.

Save Text...: This saves the active bitmap to a plain text file. For monochrome bitmaps, on pixels become “#” characters while off pixels become spaces. For color bitmaps, this produces a crude ASCII art version of the image. As with monochrome bitmaps, one character represents one pixel, where the character used for a pixel is based on the darkness of its color. The characters used will be one of the following 16, ranked in order from darkest to lightest: #MN@O$7%?*;:+,.[space]

If the Bitmap Is 3D setting is on, this instead saves the 3D Maze in the main bitmap to a plain text file, formatted such that the different levels and passages between them are easily seen. The dimensions of the 3D Maze are taken from the appropriate fields in the Size or Maze Size dialogs. In the text file, each level is written in sequence. Within a level, “#” characters are walls, spaces are passages, “\” indicates a passage down to the next lower level, “/” indicates a passage up to the next higher level, and “X” indicates passages both up and down at that point. These files may only be exported, and can’t be loaded back into Daedalus as 3D bitmaps. The “3D Bitmap X Cutoff” value in the File Settings dialog is used to control how many levels are placed side by side in the text file before going to subsequent rows.

DOS Text: This submenu has commands to save the main bitmap to a plain text file composed of DOS graphics characters. Hence they can really only be displayed in a DOS command prompt. These files may only be exported, and can’t be loaded back into Daedalus.

Save Blocks...: This uses DOS block characters to compose the bitmap. Each character covers two pixels. Since DOS characters are typically twice as tall as they are wide, this makes each pixel nearly square, making for a nice looking display.

If the Line Chars In Text Bitmaps flag in File Settings is set, it will cause the file to be saved using normal ASCII instead of DOS graphics characters. Each character will still cover two pixels. This format lends itself to saving Mazes, and is a more compact form of the text generated by the Save Text command.

Save Lines...: This uses DOS line characters to compose the bitmap. Since the center of each character is a wall intersection, each DOS character basically covers four pixels. Note there are no DOS line characters for wall endpoints, hence any walls that end will look longer than they should. Bitmaps that have been run through the Accent Boundaries command (and hence have no wall endpoints) look better in this display.

Save Double Lines...: This is just like Save Lines but uses the DOS double line characters consisting of two parallel lines close together.

X11 Bitmap: This submenu has commands to load and save files like as created with the “bitmap” command on Unix X11 systems. These files are plain text and looks like fragments of C source code. If you’re not transferring files to or from Unix systems, this format isn’t useful to you.

Open...: This opens an X11 bitmap file into the main bitmap.

Save Normal...: This saves the main bitmap to an X11 bitmap file. The file will look exactly as created with the “bitmap” command.

Save Compressed...: This is just like Save Normal but removes extra whitespace characters from the generated file. The result may still be loaded into the “bitmap” command.

Save Supercompressed...: This is like Save Compressed but writes the content in a different manner which results in a still smaller file. This file is not compatible with being loaded back into the “bitmap” command, but may still be displayed with the “xsetroot” command.

3D Bitmap: This submenu has commands to load and save the 3D bitmap as represented in the main bitmap. This uses a private file format that’s basically a list of plain text representations of each level in the 3D bitmap.

Open...: This loads a 3D bitmap file into the main bitmap. The dimensions of the 3D bitmap loaded may be seen in the Size or Maze Size dialogs.

Save Normal...: This saves the 3D bitmap such that each pixel is represented by one character in the file, similar to what the Save Text command does for standard bitmaps. The 3D bitmap is written one level at a time through the Z axis. This format, though larger, is the easiest to understand and to make other programs understand.

Save Supercompressed...: This saves the 3D bitmap such that each character in the file covers six or more pixels.

Save As Wallpaper: This submenu has commands which allow one to automatically set the background picture of their Windows desktop to be the current monochrome or color bitmap. One can make a Daedalus bitmap be their desktop background manually, by doing Save Bitmap to create a bitmap file, then going into the Display Properties Windows control panel, and pointing the background bitmap to the file created. This command however does all that automatically, where a bitmap file called “Daedalus.bmp” will be written to the Windows directory.

Center Bitmap: This centers the active bitmap in the middle of the Windows desktop.

Tile Bitmap: This tiles or tessellates the active bitmap across and down the Windows desktop area.

Stretch Bitmap: This stretches or shrinks the active bitmap to cover the entire screen.

Fit Bitmap: This stretches or shrinks the bitmap to just fit within the desktop while preserving proportion, and will leave space on the horizontal or vertical edges if the proportions are different from the background. Note this command will only work on Windows 7 or later, which supports this style of background.

Fill Bitmap: This stretches or shrinks the bitmap to completely fill the desktop area while preserving proportion, and will clip content on the horizontal or vertical edges of the bitmap if its proportions are different from the background. Note this command will only work on Windows 7 or later, which supports this style of background.

Print...: This prints the main or color bitmap, whichever is being shown, from within the program, and brings up the standard Windows Print dialog. The image printed will be a one page graphic of the bitmap, scaled to be as large as possible within the bounds of the page. The window’s horizontal and vertical scrollbars determine where on the page the image will be positioned, e.g. the vertical scrollbar centered means the image will be vertically centered. Note that the colors in the window will be the colors on the paper, where you might want to invert the bitmap or change the color palette so that walls are black and passages white, instead of the default of the reverse, so the Maze will print as black on a white background. Note even with this command available, one may still prefer to use the clipboard or file features of Daedalus to copy the bitmap, and print it from another program, such as a word processor or desktop publishing program, to have full control over positioning and all.

Print Setup...: This brings up the standard Windows Print Setup dialog, allowing one to select settings such as the printer to print to and whether the page will be oriented in portrait or landscape mode. This is also accessible from the Print dialog itself via the Setup button, but is made available separately here.

File Settings...: This dialog allows changing of various settings dealing with files.

Current Generation: Every time a new infinite Maze section is created, this value is incremented by one. Starting a new infinite Maze resets this value to one. There’s no reason to change this, unless you exit the program part way through creating an infinite Maze, and want to restore things to the way they were later.

Generation Cutoff: If this value is more than zero, then whenever the Current Generation reaches or passes this value, the current infinite Maze will be finished. An end section instead of a middle section will be created when the Infinite Continue command is run. This allows one to make an infinite Maze of a certain size without having to carefully watch the Current Generation value and then manually end the infinite Maze at the right time.

New File Cutoff: This value only plays a role when Save Infinite To File below is set. Normally when saving an infinite Maze to file, the entire Maze will be written to a single file. When the number here is more than zero, the Maze sections will be written to multiple files. The number indicates how many generations or sections should be saved to each file before going on to the next file. The first file will be called “inf00000.txt”, the second “inf00001.txt”, and so on. This is useful when creating extremely large infinite Mazes, where for example on most Windows file systems an individual file can’t exceed two gigabytes in size.

Use Eller's Algorithm: When this is set, each infinite Maze section will be created using Eller’s Algorithm, instead of the slower Hunt and Kill Algorithm. Because Eller’s Algorithm creates a Maze one row at a time, having this on while creating an Infinite Maze will always fill up both halves of the bitmap with passages, instead of leaving the bottom half partly carved.

Save Infinite To File: When this is set, each infinite Maze section will be written to the file “infinite.txt” in the current directory. Starting a new infinite Maze will create this file, while continuing or ending an infinite Maze will append to this file.

Save Infinite As DOS Text: When this is set, infinite Maze sections will be written to the file as DOS graphics characters, instead of as plain text characters as is default. The DOS characters used will be the same as in the Save Blocks command.

Don't Autostart Infinite: Normally the Infinite Continue command, if there’s no current infinite Maze being created, will start a new infinite Maze, like as if the Infinite Start command were selected. When this is set, the Infinite Continue command will do nothing if the program’s not in the middle of creating an infinite Maze. You’ll need to actually select Infinite Start to start a new Maze. This allows one to create an infinite Maze of a certain size by setting the Generation Cutoff, and then doing Autorepeat on Infinite Continue, without a new Maze immediately being created once the end is reached.

2D Bitmap X Cutoff & 2D Bitmap Y Cutoff: Daedalus has the ability to export a bitmap as an array of smaller bitmaps. This can be used to print out a very large Maze on multiple sheets of paper. These two values are used to set the size of these smaller bitmaps. They will affect the Save Bitmap and Save Text commands. By default these values are the largest sized bitmap allowed in Daedalus, meaning each bitmap is always written out as a single file. When two or more files are generated, four digits will be added to each filename, e.g. saving as “maze.bmp” will result in files like “maze0000.bmp”, “maze0001.bmp”, and so on. Each subbitmap will always be the size of the cutoff values. If the size of the main bitmap isn’t a multiple of the cutoff values, the bottom/right rows/columns of the bottom/right subbitmaps will be filled in with the dot drag color.

3D Bitmap X Cutoff: This is used by the Save Text command when saving 3D bitmaps, to control how many 3D levels are written side by side in a row, before going to the next rows in the file to write subsequent levels.

Save Text Bitmaps Clipped: When this is set, text files written will never end in spaces, i.e. any space characters that would otherwise be at the ends of lines will be dropped. This makes the files smaller but will still display and load back into Daedalus the same. This will also not export the final newline at the end of the last line for DOS text files, making it so in a DOS window there’s no extra blank line after the display of such a file before the prompt.

Line Chars In Text Bitmaps: This affects the Save Text command. When set, on pixels won’t always just be written as “#” characters, but rather horizontal walls will be “-”, vertical walls will be “|”, and everything else will be “+”.

Save Text Bitmaps Tabbed: This adjusts plain text format bitmap file saves and clipboard copies to have a tab in between each character. That allows text bitmaps to be more easily opened or pasted into Microsoft Excel, with one cell per bitmap pixel.

Open Documentation: This launches the default Web browser and has it automatically open this Daedalus documentation file.

More Help: This submenu has commands which show additional more advanced or more specialized documentation.

Open Scripting: Launches the default Web browser and has it automatically open the scripting documentation file.

Open Changes: Launches the default Web browser and has it automatically open the Daedalus latest changes file.

Open License: Launches the default Web browser and has it open the Daedalus license file, displaying legal information on how you can use the program. Daedalus uses the GNU General Public License (GPL).

Open Website: Launches the default Web browser and has it automatically open the Daedalus Web site at http://www.astrolog.org/labyrnth.htm.

Setup: This submenu has commands which help setup the program in the Windows environment.

Program Group (User): Creates a “Daedalus” folder on the Windows Start / All Programs menu. In this folder will be shortcuts to the Daedalus executable, shortcuts to the three documentation files (standard program usage, scripting, and latest changes), and a shortcut to the Daedalus Web site. It will also contain a Scripts subfolder containing shortcuts to the 26 scripts that come with the program. This program group will only be visible to the current user.

Program Group (All): This is identical to the Program Group (User) command, except the folder created is visible to all users logged into Windows instead of just the current user. The former command should always succeed, while permission to create a program group for all users may be restricted on Vista and newer versions of Windows. Hence Daedalus may need to be run as Administrator to avoid this command failing and displaying an error message.

Desktop Icon: Creates a shortcut on the Windows desktop pointing to the current location of the Daedalus executable.

File Extensions: Registers Daedalus as the owner for the file extensions .ds (Daedalus scripts), .d3 (Daedalus 3D bitmaps), .dp (Daedalus patch files), and .dw (Daedalus wireframe files). Double clicking on such files, or right clicking their icon and selecting “Open”, will have Daedalus launch and open them. Right clicking Daedalus files and selecting “Edit” will have Notepad launch and open the file. These files will also be given a Daedalus icon of a simple Maze. This command edits the Windows registry, which is protected on Vista and newer versions of Windows, meaning the command may fail and display an error message. Hence Daedalus may need to be run as Administrator in order for the program to have permission to edit the registry.

Uninstall Extensions: This command can be used to help uninstall Daedalus. It will remove all Daedalus specific information from the Windows registry, undoing that which was added by the File Extensions command. As above, the registry is protected on Vista and newer versions of Windows, meaning the command may fail and display an error message unless Daedalus is run in Administrator mode.

About Daedalus...: This dialog brings up the About box for Daedalus which contains static text showing the credits and copyrights for the program.

Exit: This immediately terminates and closes the program.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - EDIT MENU

Edit Menu: This deals with all low level operations of the program. This includes clipboard commands, random number settings, and the program’s timer. It also deals with fundamental display settings, such as the color palette being used, and how to draw the current bitmap being viewed.

Repeat Command: This runs again the most recent command selected, regardless of whether it was invoked from a menu or a keyboard shortcut. This can be used to do multiple times a menu command that doesn’t already have a keyboard shortcut.

Autorepeat: This makes the program enter a mode where it will continually repeat over and over the most recent command selected that’s autorepeatable. Run this command again to turn off autorepeat. Basically any command that has a visible effect when done multiple times can be autorepeated. For example inverting the screen or moving the dot in some direction can be autorepeated, however just clearing the screen or teleporting the dot to the corner of the bitmap can’t be. Autorepeat can for example be used to do a Maze “spree” and generate new random Mazes one after another. The individual commands on the Infinite submenu are Maze types, where you can enter Autorepeat mode after running the Infinite Continue command once, to keep on making an infinite Maze larger. See the Autorepeat Randomizes Wall Color checkbox in the Set Colors dialog for a way to make each Maze a different color. Other good autorepeatable commands are Left, Right, and Random; these make for a good demo, especially in the 3D first person inside view. For example, turn on View Inside, do Move Random once, then turn on Autorepeat, and watch yourself continually wander through the Maze taking random choices at junctions.

Macros: Daedalus features its own macro language, which can be used to automate actions, and even design whole games or other programs using Daedalus as a platform. This submenu allows access to these features. Note the following definitions: A command line is a string of text containing a sequence of actions. An action is an individual instruction that tells Daedalus to run a menu command, set a dialog variable, or even access an extra feature which isn’t available through the standard user interface. A macro is a command line stored in a special place which can be executed at any time. A script is a file containing a sequence of command lines. An event is an occurrence in the program which can be made to automatically trigger a macro execution.

Enter Command Line...: This dialog allows one to enter a command line, to either be executed right away or assigned to a macro.

Enter Command Line Below: Enter the command line string you want to have executed or assigned to a macro in this field. If the dialog is closed with the OK button, the contents of this command line will immediately be executed. The format of the actions composing a command line is complex, where details of the Daedalus scripting language are covered in the separate documentation file script.txt.

Get Macro: This button will get the contents of the Macro specified by the Number field, and populate the Enter Command Line field with it, and also the Menu Text field with the current menu text for it from the appropriate Run Macro submenu. This allows examining or modifying existing macros.

Define Macro: This button will change the contents of the Macro specified by the Number field to be the contents of the Enter Command Line field, and also set the menu text for that macro’s menu command to be the text in the Menu Text field. Note macros defined through this button persist even if the dialog is closed with Cancel.

Number: When assigning or getting the contents of a macro through the Define Macro or Get Macro buttons, enter the number of the macro to set or query here.

Menu Text: When assigning or getting the contents of a macro through the Get Macro or Define Macro buttons, the menu text for the macro’s command on the appropriate Run Macro submenu goes in this field. Note the “&” character here means a keyboard accelerator, which on the menu gets displayed as an underscore beneath the character following it. There are 48 menu commands, however Daedalus supports any number of macros. If you assign or get a macro not between 1 and 48, the Menu Text field is ignored.

Note a command line is automatically run every time Daedalus starts. Any text after the program name in a Windows shortcut, or anything after the program name if Daedalus is started from a DOS command prompt, will be treated as a command line and executed once the program begins. The icons which run the Daedalus demos and games are just shortcuts to the Daedalus executable, with a command line appended to open the appropriate script on startup.

Open Script...: This opens a Daedalus script file and runs it. Daedalus comes with a number of sample scripts which demo features of the program or play games.

Run Macro: There are four Run Macro submenus, each of which contain twelve commands to run a particular macro. Daedalus has 48 macro slots attached to menu commands, which start out empty, but can have command lines assigned to them automatically by script files or manually through the Enter Command Line dialog. Usually a macro will be invoked through its keyboard shortcut, e.g. press F1 through F12 to run macros 1 through 12, Shift+F1 through Shift+F12 for macros 13 through 24, and so on.

Note some macro commands have the same keyboard shortcuts as system behavior. If a macro exists in such a slot, the Daedalus behavior will replace the system behavior. Pressing Alt+F4 will run macro #40 if present, else it exits the program. Pressing F1 will do the same as the Open Documentation command, if there isn’t already something defined in macro slot #1. One can press F1 in any script as well as the program itself to get help for the current environment.

Macro Events...: This dialog allows macros to be assigned to various events in the program, which get automatically executed whenever the trigger condition occurs. If a field is set to zero, that means no macro will run for that event, otherwise the specified macro will run.

On Move Off Bitmap: This event occurs whenever the dot is on the bitmap, and is moved off one of the edges. Note if Edge Behavior is set to Stop At Edge, the dot will automatically stop before this gets a chance to run.

On Move Into Wall: This event occurs whenever the dot runs into a wall, i.e. it’s directed to move to an on pixel and that movement is prevented. Note if Walls Impassable is off, this event will never run since the dot will be able to move through walls.

On Move To New Cell: This event occurs whenever the dot is about to move to a new cell or pixel. Minor movement within a cell in the Free Movement modes in perspective inside view won’t trigger this.

After Move To New Cell: This event occurs after the dot moves to a new cell or pixel. This event always happens soon after the On Move To New Cell event.

On Follow To New Cell: This event is similar to On Move To New Cell, and occurs whenever the dot is about to automatically move to a new cell due to following a passage when the Follow Passages setting is on, or when Follow Passages is simulated by pressing Shift+up or down in first person view to run to the next junction.

After Redraw Inside: This event happens whenever a screen redraw happens in the perspective inside view. This can for example be used to add custom text on the screen, e.g. your score in a game script.

On Redraw Inside: This event happens whenever a screen redraw happens in the perspective inside view. It happens after the bitmap is created in color bitmap -4, but before the After Redraw Inside events is fired allowing one to add text on top of the bitmap. This allows one to modify color bitmap -4, before it gets displayed.

On Run Command: This event occurs whenever any command is run, selected from either a menu or a keyboard shortcut.

On Left Mouse Click: This event happens whenever the left mouse button is clicked inside the drawable or client area of the window.

On Right Mouse Click: This event happens whenever the right mouse button is clicked inside the drawable or client area of the window.

On Middle Mouse Click: This event happens whenever the middle mouse button is clicked inside the drawable or client area of the window. For most Microsoft mice, this means pressing down the mouse wheel.

On Previous Mouse Click: This event happens whenever the “previous” mouse button is clicked inside the drawable or client area of the window. For some mice, this is the small button on the left hand side of the mouse closest to you or toward the bottom.

On Next Mouse Click: This event happens whenever the “next” mouse button is clicked inside the drawable or client area of the window. For some newer mice, this is the small button on the left hand side of the mouse farthest away from you or toward the top.

On Mouse Move: This event happens whenever the mouse pointer is moved within the Daedalus window. It covers both simple motion and when a mouse button is held down while dragging.

On Program Exit: This event occurs whenever the program is about to terminate.

Copy Bitmap: This copies the main bitmap to the Windows clipboard as a monochrome Windows bitmap. If Show Color Bitmap is on, this instead copies the color bitmap to the Windows clipboard as a 24 bit color Windows bitmap. The contents put on the clipboard are the same as generated by the Save Bitmap command. Note an alternate way to print out a bitmap if you don’t like the behavior of the Print command, is to copy it to the clipboard, paste it into another program such as Paint or Word, and print from there. Or save the bitmap and then load it into the other program.

Copy Text: This copies the main bitmap to the Windows clipboard as plain text. The contents put on the clipboard are the same as generated by the Save Text command.

Paste: This pastes from the Windows clipboard into the program. A bitmap on the clipboard will be pasted into the main or color bitmap appropriately, where this behaves like the Open Bitmap command. If there is no bitmap in the clipboard, then if there’s text on the clipboard, it will be pasted into the main bitmap, and will behave like the Open Text command.

Display Settings...: This dialog sets how to display the current bitmap being viewed, and also deals with other low level redraw and screen update settings.

Entire Bitmap: This is a radio button in the “what to draw” group. When selected, the entire bitmap will always be drawn in the window.

Certain Number Of Pixels: This is a radio button in the “what to draw” group. When selected, a particular number of bitmap pixels will always fill the window. Resizing the window won’t show any more of the bitmap, but will instead change the size of those pixels seen. The number of horizontal and vertical pixels is specified in the Horizontal & Vertical Pixel Value settings. The display of the bitmap will also be centered on the dot.

Certain Size Of Pixels: This is a radio button in the “what to draw” group. When selected, all bitmap pixels will be a certain number of screen pixels in size. Resizing the window won’t change the size of the pixels, but will instead show more or fewer pixels of the bitmap. The number of horizontal and vertical pixels is specified in the Horizontal & Vertical Pixel Value settings. The display of the bitmap will also be centered on the dot.

Fixed Size Of Pixels: This is a radio button in the “how to draw it” group. This sets the screen size of each pixel in the bitmap, where the horizontal and vertical size is specified in the Horizontal and Vertical Pixel Value settings. Selecting this only plays a role when “what to draw” is set to Entire Bitmap.

Largest Square Size: This is a radio button in the “how to draw it” group. When selected, whatever part of the bitmap is being drawn will have each bitmap pixel be the largest square size it can be and still fit inside the window. In other words each bitmap pixel will be the same size, and each will be a square.

Largest Rectangular Size: This is a radio button in the “how to draw it” group. When selected, whatever part of the bitmap is being drawn will have each bitmap pixel be the largest rectangular size it can be and still fit inside the window. In other words each bitmap pixel will be the same size, however they may be rectangles instead of squares depending on the size of the window.

Stretch To Window: This is a radio button in the “how to draw it” group. When selected, whatever part of the bitmap is being drawn will be stretched to exactly fill the window. This may make each bitmap pixel cover a slightly different amount of area of the screen. Note for this setting only, the dot will never be shown, even when the Show Dot flag is on.

Horizontal Pixel Value & Vertical Pixel Value: These numbers indicate the screen size of each bitmap pixel, or the number of bitmap pixels to show. They are only used when Certain Number Of Pixels, Certain Size of Pixels, or Fixed Size of Pixels are set.

Show Color Bitmap: This does the same thing as the menu command of the same name on the Color menu. Having it here too allows you to see and set all these display related settings at once.

Horizontal Size & Vertical Size: These values indicate the horizontal and vertical pixel size of the Daedalus window itself. You can change these to resize the window.

Horizontal & Vertical Offset: These two values indicate the horizontal and vertical screen pixel location of the upper left corner of the Daedalus window itself. You can change these to move the window. The Size Is Drawable Area flag controls whether this means the corner of the drawable or client area in the window, or the entire Daedalus window including the title bar and border.

Horizontal & Vertical Scroll: These two fields indicate the position of the window’s horizontal and vertical scrollbars. You can change these to move the scrollbars. The scrollbars can be in 17 possible positions, where a value of zero means all the way to the left or top, and 16 means all the way to the right or bottom.

Size Is Drawable Area: When this is set, the Horizontal & Vertical Size values above indicate the size of the drawable or client area in the Daedalus window. When this is unset, the Horizontal & Vertical Size values indicate the size of the entire Daedalus window including the title and menu bars, window border, and so on.

Window Always On Top: When this is set, the Daedalus window will always be on top of every other window on the screen, including the Windows taskbar and even when the Daedalus window is not active. The full screen mode feature automatically sets this.

Hide Menu: This controls whether the menu bar is displayed at the top of the window. When off, the main menu can no longer be pulled down, although commands can still be run through keyboard shortcuts. Game scripts often turn off the menu, to create a less cluttered environment.

Hide Scrollbars: This controls whether the scroll bars are displayed at the bottom and right of the window. When off, the scrollbars can no longer be seen or manipulated, although their existing positions still take effect. Game scripts often turn off the scrollbars, since the scrollbar positions don’t affect the first person view any.

Redraw When Bitmap Edited: Normally whenever you do an operation which changes the contents of a bitmap, the screen will immediately update to reflect the current state of the bitmap. When this is unset, the screen won’t update until you tell it to with the Redraw Now menu command. This allows you to do things such as create a Maze to solve without giving yourself any hint as to what it looks like ahead of time.

Allow Partial Screen Updates: Normally whenever you run a command, the screen won’t update until the command is completely finished. Certain commands, such as most of the Maze creation methods, reach intermediate states during their running. When this is set, the screen will update to the current state of the bitmap at each of these points. This can allow you to see more things happening while running a command that takes a while to finish.

Show Individual Pixel Edits: This is a more extreme version of Allow Partial Screen Updates. When this is set, each and every time a bitmap pixel changes during any command you’ll see it happen on the screen. This allows you to see every thing a command does, e.g. you can see how certain Maze creation or solving algorithms work. However, computationally intensive operations on the bitmap like Maze creation will run about five times slower.

This setting also affects the perspective inside view. For the Simple Perspective inside view mode, one can watch the scene get drawn. For the other inside view modes, this has no effect except one may notice the compass, location, or script produced text flicker during redraws.

Pixel Display Delay: This is an animation delay for when Show Individual Pixel Edits is active. This delay also applies when Follow Passages in the Dot Settings dialog is on, and the dot is being shown. The higher the value, the longer the delay between visible pixel changes, and the longer the delay between automatic movement of the dot down a passage. Note a big number here can make whatever action take a long time to finish. See the Redraw Window command for a way to gain control again if the action is taking too long.

Error Check Pixel Operations: When this is set, the program will make various checks to assert the program state and commands are running as expected, and display an Assert error message if anything is bad. It will also check to ensure no memory gets leaked by the program, which means if there are any bugs where a piece of memory doesn’t get freed, an error message will be displayed when the program exits.

Hourglass Cursor On Redraw: When this is set, then commands that may take a long time to complete such as Maze creation will bring up the wait or hourglass mouse pointer during their execution. Having this off might be preferred when Autorepeat is on, where you may not want the pointer flashing all the time as Mazes or whatever are created over and over.

Autorepeat Last Command: This does the same thing as the Autorepeat menu command on the Edit menu.

Repeat Delay In Msec: This value indicates the time interval in milliseconds that the program will try to automatically do certain operations. This includes commands repeated by the Autorepeat command, dot movement done when the Chase Mouse Point checkbox is set, and screen updates during the Very Free Movement perspective inside mode. If this is set to 1000 for example, then the Autorepeat command will generate no more than one Maze or whatever per second. Lowering this value can speed these things up.

This field may be set to zero, which will make the program not pause at all between successive iterations of the operation being autorepeated, and continually do them in a tight loop until you specify otherwise. On Windows 9x systems Daedalus won’t even ever yield to other programs and give them a chance to do anything, and even on newer systems Daedalus will use maximum CPU time. When not doing anything else with your computer a zero timer delay can be useful, and make the program run around twice as fast as when it’s set to anything higher.

Pause Timer: This does the same thing as the menu command of the same name on the Edit menu.

Skip Message Display: This does the same thing as the Ignore Messages menu command on the Edit menu.

Allow Sound Playing: When this is off, all sound playing is disabled. This setting is used by the “Hunger Games” script which plays sounds, allowing all sound playback to be turned off at once.

Cell Viewport Span: This submenu has commands with which one can easily zoom in or out on the dot in the display. Each command will automatically set the Display Settings dialog “what to draw” section to Certain Size Of Pixels, and will increase or decrease the Horizontal and Vertical Pixel Values. In other words the display will become centered on the dot if not already, and the number of screen pixels each bitmap pixel covers on the screen, will go up or down a certain amount.

Decrease By 1 & Increase By 1 & Decrease By 10 & Increase By 10: These four commands take the screen pixel size of each bitmap pixel and increase or decrease them by one or ten.

Window: This submenu has commands that affect the Daedalus window.

Size Window Full Screen: This toggles the program in and out of full screen mode. In full screen mode the entire screen is covered by the drawable or client area of the Daedalus window, where no other window or even the program’s menu bar will be visible. The menu still exists off the top of the screen, and can be pulled down and viewed with the Alt and arrow keys. Note that this command may generate an error message, because some versions of Windows don’t support entering full screen mode, at least not unless the program is running as Administrator or with elevated privileges.

Size Window To Bitmap: This resizes the window to be the same size as the active bitmap at its current pixel zoom. It’s the same as if the window were resized so that all of the bitmap is visible and no border area is showing around the bitmap in the window.

Size Bitmap To Window: This resizes the bitmap to be the same size as the window’s drawable or client area. It’s the same as using the Size dialog to set the dimensions of the active bitmap to the horizontal and vertical size of the window as seen in Display Settings.

Update Window: This forces the screen to redraw. If the Redraw When Bitmap Edited flag is off, the screen won’t normally update when a command is run, in which case this command will update the screen to the state of the bitmap.

Redraw Window: This simply redraws the current screen. Most often this will have no visible effect, although it will trigger the After Redraw Inside macro event if set.

Pressing the space bar, i.e. running this Redraw Window command, will interrupt moving down a passage in Follow Passages mode. When moving down a passage to the next junction, that can sometimes take a while, say in a large Unicursal Maze. If you want to stop the animation and get control again, press space to stop the dot in its tracks. Pressing the space bar also affects the Show Individual Pixel Edits setting when the Pixel Display Delay is non-zero. A large Pixel Display Delay can make whatever command take a long time to finish. If you want to stop waiting, press space to drop the Pixel Display Delay value to zero.

Scroll Page Up: This move the vertical scrollbar half way up.

Scroll Page Down: This moves the vertical scrollbar half way down.

Scroll To Beginning: This moves both scrollbars to the upper left corner of the window.

Scroll To End: This moves both scrollbars to the lower right corner of the window.

Set Colors...: This dialog allows changing the colors used in the various displays in the program.

Border: The border color is the color used for all parts of the window not covered by the bitmap, i.e. what covers the remainder when the section of bitmap displayed doesn’t fill the entire window.

Passage: The passage color is the color of passages in Mazes, i.e. the general “off” pixel color for monochrome bitmaps. This is also the color of informational text displayed in perspective inside view.

Wall: The wall color is the color of walls in Mazes, i.e. the general “on” pixel color for monochrome bitmaps. This is also the background color surrounding text displayed in perspective inside view. If Passage and Wall color are the same, then the text will be drawn with a transparent background.

Dot: When the dot is visible over one of the pixels as when Show Dot is on, this is the color of the dot.

Overlay: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of walls in the map overlay.

Inside Wall: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of the walls for 2D Mazes. It’s also the color of floor markings as set with Mark ‘X’ At Dot for 3D Mazes.

Inside Sky: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of the sky or ceiling for 2D Mazes. It’s also the color of the sky or ceiling on the top level of 3D Mazes.

Inside Ground: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of the ground or floor.

Inside Line: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of edges or corners between walls when in Simple Perspective mode. It’s also the color of entrances and exits when Sealed Entrances is set.

Inside 3D Wall: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of the walls for 3D Mazes. It’s also the color of floor markings as set with Mark ‘X’ At Dot for 2D Mazes.

Inside 3D Ceiling: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of the ceiling for all levels excluding the top level of 3D Mazes.

Inside Mountain: For the 3D first person view, this is the color of mountains, as seen when Mountains in Inside Settings is on.

Inside Fog: For the 3D first person view, this controls what color walls fade into in the distance, as seen when Fog Distance in Inside Settings is active. The color black works well with a black night sky, where the walls seem to disappear into darkness. The color gray works well with a gray sky, where walls appear to emerge from mist.

Autorepeat Randomizes Wall Color: If this is set, then when the Autorepeat command is active, the wall color will be set to a random color of the rainbow before whatever command is run. In other words when autorepeating a Maze generation command this makes each Maze a different color.

Ignore Messages: Daedalus commands sometimes bring up message boxes giving information about what it just did. For example, the Mark Dead Ends command will tell how many sections were marked. This command toggles whether such messages are displayed. When Ignore Messages is checked, no such messages will pop up. If for example you want to do the Mark Dead Ends command over and over, having to dismiss the message box again and again would be inconvenient, in which case turning on Ignore Messages would be useful. Note this doesn’t prevent the display of error messages, or commands such as Count Pixels whose sole purpose is to print a message.

Query Timer: Daedalus keeps track of how much time has elapsed since the program was started. This displays the value of that timer to the nearest second.

Reset Timer: This resets the timer back to zero. An example use is to time how long it takes you to get through a Maze. Create or load a Maze, do Reset Timer, solve it, then Query Timer and see how long it took you.

Pause Timer: This toggles whether the timer is paused. Do the command once to pause the timer. Do the command again to unpause it. While paused the amount of seconds elapsed will not increase. An example use is if you need to answer the phone while in the middle of timing yourself through a Maze.

Random Settings...: This dialog allows changing of settings related to the random number generator in Daedalus.

Random Seed: This specifies what sequence of numbers will be produced by the random number generator. If you have set this set to a particular number and then create random Mazes, the same Mazes will always be produced in the same sequence. If this field is blank, then the random number seed won’t be set and the current state of the random number generator won’t be touched.

Random Bias: This allows most styles of random Mazes created to be passage biased. A biased Maze has straightaways that tend to go along one axis more often than at other angles. When this value is positive, Mazes will be horizontally biased, and when this is negative, Mazes will be vertically biased. The farther the value from zero, the more extreme the bias. A value of zero means no bias. For 3D and 4D Mazes, a large bias will cause there to be fewer jumps between levels.

Random Run: This allows some styles of random Mazes created to have a “run” factor. The run of a Maze means how long straightaways tend to go before forced turnings present themselves. A Maze with a low run won’t have straight passages for more than three or four cells, and will look very random. A Maze with a high run will have long passages going across a good percentage of the Maze, and will look similar to a microchip. The more this value is greater than zero, the higher the run.

Randomize Seed: This truly randomizes the Random Seed setting, by setting it to a random number based on the system clock. If you do Randomize Seed then create a Maze, the Maze that’s created will be different each time. Without doing Randomize Seed, Daedalus will always create the same sequence of Mazes. This command also causes the stars, mountains, and clouds in perspective inside view to be randomly regenerated, in the same way their positions are randomly set when starting the program.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - DOT MENU

Dot Menu: This contains everything dealing with “the dot”. The dot is like a cursor positioned over a particular pixel on the bitmap. The dot can be moved around, the bitmap can be edited based on the dot, and special displays can be centered on the dot like the 3D first person inside view where the dot indicates where you are.

Dot Settings...: This dialog controls many settings related to the dot. This means its location, how the dot moves, and how to draw on the screen using the dot as a paintbrush. The dialog contains a line of text telling what color pixel the dot is over. This will either be on/off or the appropriate color or RGB value, depending on whether the color bitmap is active.

Horizontal & Vertical: These values contain the X and Y pixel locations of the dot. The upper left corner is coordinate (0, 0).

Height: This value contains the Z location of the dot. This only plays a role in 3D bitmaps.

Direction: This value contains the direction the dot is facing. The number 0 means Up or North, 1 means Left or West, 2 means Down or South, and 3 means Right or East. When you move the dot, this is updated to the direction the dot last moved. This is used in the 3D first person inside view to indicate which way you’re facing.

2nd Horizontal & 2nd Vertical & 2nd Height: These values contain the location of the second dot. See the 2nd Dot submenu for more information about this second dot.

Bitmap Is 3D: This does the same thing as the menu command of the same name on the Bitmap menu. Having it here too allows you to see and set all these dot related settings at once.

Show Dot: This does the same thing as the menu command of the same name on the Dot menu.

Dot Is Circle: If this is set, then when the dot is visible, it will be drawn as a circle over the pixel instead of a square. This makes the dot look more like a dot and also allows seeing some of the pixel behind it.

Dot Shows Arrow: If this is set, an arrow will be drawn on the dot in the direction the dot is facing, assuming the dot is visible and large enough. The arrow will be drawn in the inside Line color from the Set Colors dialog. If the Line color is the same as the Dot color, then only the arrow will be drawn and the dot itself will be transparent.

Dot Size: The size of the dot can be controlled with this field. Normally when Show Dot is on, the dot covers just a single pixel. The value here indicates the number of extra pixels to cover surrounding the center pixel. For example, a value of 1 means to cover a 3x3 block of pixels, 2 covers a 5x5 block, etc.

Walls Impassable: This does the same thing as the menu command of the same name on the Dot menu.

No Corner Hopping: This setting only plays a role when Walls Impassable is set. If this is set, you won’t be able to move diagonally when the two adjacent pixels are on. In other words, picture a 2x2 grid of pixels, where two opposite corners are off and the other two opposite corners are on. You will only be allowed to move diagonally from one off pixel to the other one when this setting is unchecked. For Maze types which make use of non-orthogonal walls like Crack Mazes you probably want this on. For Maze types which make use of diagonal passages like Zeta Mazes you probably want this off. Note No Corner Hopping also plays a role in a number of other commands, where on usually means the command considers orthogonal connections only, and off means diagonal connections are allowed too.

Glancing Blows: If this is set, then when moving diagonally, if the dot can’t move to the desired pixel (because it’s on when Walls Impassable is set, or is off the screen when Stop At Edge is set) the dot will move horizontally or vertically if possible. For example, if moving the dot diagonally down and to the right, and it runs into a horizontal wall, the diagonal movement commands will make the dot move to the right along the wall.

In addition to the standard overhead view, this setting also affects the perspective inside view, where if you move into a wall, you’ll slide along the wall as if it were made of ice, as opposed to stick to the wall as if it were made of glue.

Chase Mouse Point: When this is set, the dot will continually try to move to where the mouse is pointing. This will only happen when the dot is actually visible, and the dot will move one pixel at a time at the rate indicated in the Repeat Delay value in the Display Settings dialog. This allows you to move through a Maze, or draw on the screen, just by moving the mouse around. Clicking the right mouse button will toggle this setting. In 3D first person inside view, this setting will act as if you’re continually clicking the left mouse button in the window. See the Mouse Clicks section for information on how clicking the mouse moves you in 3D inside view.

If Glancing Blows and Walls Impassable are set too, the dot will more readily flow around obstacles of on pixels. The dot will consider and prioritize all directions that lead closer to the mouse, taking the first option that’s unblocked.

No Mouse Diagonal: When Chase Mouse Point is on, having this set means the dot won’t move diagonally as it moves toward the mouse pointer, but rather will only move horizontally or vertically. This helps when drawing the solution to a Maze with the mouse, as it will ensure the passages are orthogonal.

Follow Passages: If this is set, then a dot movement command will keep moving down the current passage through any turnings until the next junction, instead of just moving one pixel at a time. This only works for standard orthogonal 2D Mazes with passages one pixel wide. If when automatically following a passage a dead end is reached, the dot will turn around and go back the way it came. This allows you to move through Mazes much faster, where all you have to do is make choices at the junctions. Note the automatic moving down a passage will stop if the dot is ever over the location of the second dot.

Radar Length: This value only plays a role when Follow Passages is set. With this, not only will the dot follow passages for you, but it will also automatically pick which way to go at junctions in certain cases. Basically the dot will use what amounts to “radar” and send invisible feelers down each passage at a junction. If that passage is a short blind alley, the dot will know not to consider going down it. For example, at a junction where one way is a short dead end, and the other leads to the rest of the Maze, the dot will go past that junction without stopping. The value here indicates how far down each passage to look. A value of one means to skip all dead ends one unit long. The higher the value, the more down each passage the dot will scan to see if it’s a blind alley.

Move Count: This value gets incremented every time you move the dot with one of the Move Dot or Move Relative commands. This is useful when solving a Maze, where you can set this field to zero, go through the Maze, and see how many moves it took.

Move By Two & Drag Move Dot & Drag Is Erase & Drag Big Dot & Drag By Two: These do the same things as the menu commands of the same name on the Dot menu. Having them here too allows you to see and set all these settings at once.

Do Drag On Temp: This affects the Drag Move Dot setting as well as the Set At Dot command, and will cause it to edit the temporary instead of the main or color bitmaps as you move the dot around. This works well with the perspective inside view, where as you move around the passages you visit will automatically be marked.

Edge Behavior: This section of radio buttons controls what the dot does when it runs off the edge of the bitmap.

Move Into Void: The dot can move off the bitmap and can keep going in any direction forever.

Stop At Edge: The dot can’t move off the bitmap, and will stop when it reaches the bitmap edge as if it were a wall.

Torus Wrapping: Moving the dot off the left edge of the bitmap will make it reappear at the right edge and vice versa. The top and bottom edges will wrap around to each other as well. Note Torus Wrapping behaves the same as Move Into Void in the perspective inside view.

Move Dot: This submenu contains the main movement commands which move the dot by a single pixel.

Down Left & Down & Down Right & Left & Right & Up Left & Up & Up Right: When a bitmap is being shown, these eight commands move the dot by one pixel in each of the eight compass directions. You’ll probably find it more convenient to use the keyboard accelerators to move instead of selecting the commands from the menu. When using the keyboard, you can use either the number keys, or the numeric keypad (both with Num Lock on and Num Lock off). For the four main compass directions, the four arrow keys will work too. The “5” key will do the same as the “2” key, and can be used to move down as well. The orthogonal move commands will update the Direction field in Dot Setting to be the direction moved in. The diagonal move commands can update the direction too, and if need be will rotate it 90 degrees to ensure it’s one of the two compass directions adjacent to the diagonal. For example if the current direction is west, and the dot moves southeast, the direction will be set to south.

In the 3D first person inside view, these commands will move the dot relative to the direction you’re currently facing. Specifically Up will move forward, Down will back up, Left will rotate left, and Right will rotate Right. The diagonal movement commands will do a rotate plus a move: The Up Left and Up Right commands will rotate left or right then move forward, and the Down Left and Down Right commands will rotate right or left then back up. In the Free & Very Free inside display modes, and also in the Move With Arrow Keys mode of the wireframe and patch renderings, the behavior is the same except moving happens before rotating.

Raise & Lower: These two commands move the dot up one level (to the next lower numbered level) and down one level (to the next higher numbered level). When looking at the 3D first person inside view of a 3D Maze, these commands are how you climb up through the ceiling or drop through the floor to adjoining levels. Note this command only does something when Bitmap Is 3D is set.

Move Relative: The standard movement commands on the Move Dot submenu do different things depending on what display mode you’re in. The commands on this submenu move either relatively or absolutely regardless of mode.

Forward: This moves the dot forward by one pixel in the direction the dot is facing. This is the same as Up on the Move Dot submenu when in 3D inside view.

Back: This moves the dot backwards by one pixel, opposite the direction the dot is facing, while still facing forward. This is the same as Down on the Move Dot submenu when in 3D inside view.

Turn Around: This turns the direction the dot is facing around 180 degrees. This affects overhead view, perspective inside view, and the Move With Arrow Keys mode when moving around in a wireframe or patch rendering. In the Smooth Movement perspective inside mode, the view will rotate to the right or left at random when turning around.

Left: This will follow the left wall for one pixel. This means the dot will move one pixel to the left with respect to the direction the dot is facing. If the space to the left is blocked by a wall, the dot will move forward. If the space forward is blocked too, the dot will move to the right. If the space to the right is yet again blocked, the dot will turn around and move backward. This command works in 3D Mazes. Wall following can be done in a deterministic way in a 3D Maze by projecting the 3D passages onto the 2D plane, i.e. by pretending up passages actually lead northwest and down lead southeast, and then applying normal wall following rules.

Right: This the same as Left, however the dot will follow the right wall for one pixel.

Random: This moves the dot one pixel in a random direction. The dot won’t turn around and reverse its current direction, or go through a wall i.e. through set pixels unless it has to. Also when entering a room, the dot will stay next to and follow along an edge, so it doesn’t wiggle randomly in the middle of the room.

North & South & West & East: These four commands move the dot up, down, to the left, and to the right by one pixel. These are the same as the Up, Down, Left, and Right commands on the Move Dot submenu when in standard bitmap viewing mode.

Jump Dot: This submenu has commands to move the dot by a larger number of pixels at once.

Down Left & Down & Down Right & Left & Right & Up Left & Up & Up Right: These eight commands are like the corresponding commands on the Move Dot submenu, however these will move the dot by 16 pixels at a time instead of just one. The same accelerator keys for that submenu can be used here, except here the shift key needs to be down.

In 3D first person inside view, the Left and Right commands will sidestep or strafe to the left and right. The Jump Up and Jump Down commands will move forward and back up like how the standard Move Up and Move Down commands do, however you’ll move as if the Follow Passages setting in the Dot Settings dialog were toggled. In other words this is a quick way to follow a passage to the next junction, without having to manually turn Follow Passages on. The diagonal jump commands do nothing in 3D inside view.

Teleport Dot: This submenu has commands to teleport the dot to a particular location on the bitmap. They will also center the dot within its current cell and snap its direction to the nearest compass point, visible in the Free Movement perspective inside modes where your direction and position within a cell can be arbitrary.

UL Corner & UR Corner & LL Corner & LR Corner: These four commands move the dot to the four corners of the bitmap, i.e. the upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right.

Entrance: This moves the dot to the entrance of the Maze, assuming the bitmap contains a standard orthogonal Maze. This means moving the dot to the first passage i.e. off pixel in the top row.

Exit: This moves the dot to the exit of the Maze, assuming the bitmap contains a standard orthogonal Maze. This means moving the dot to the first passage i.e. off pixel in the bottom or second from bottom row.

Left Entrance: This is like the Entrance command except it moves the dot to the first off passage in the leftmost column.

Right Exit: This is like the Exit command except it moves the dot to the first off passage in the second from the right column.

Middle: This moves the dot to the center of the bitmap, or the center of the middle level for a 3D bitmap.

Random: This moves the dot to a random cell location on the bitmap. If Solve Fillers Check Every Pixel in Maze Settings is on, this will teleport to a random pixel within the bitmap area, instead of only teleporting to pixels corresponding to the centers of cells.

2nd Dot: This moves the dot to the location of the second dot. See the 2nd Dot submenu for more information about the second dot.

Show Dot: When this is checked, the location of the dot will be visible. The bitmap pixel corresponding to the dot will be covered with the Dot color as indicated in the Set Colors dialog.

Walls Impassable: When this is checked, the dot movement commands will do nothing if they would cause the dot to move onto an on pixel i.e. a wall. This allows you to solve a Maze by moving the dot through it, while preventing you from accidentally moving through walls.

Move By Two: When this is checked, the dot movement commands will move the dot by two pixels instead of just one. Having this on is useful when manually drawing a standard orthogonal Maze, because it can keep the dot on even or odd numbered coordinates corresponding to walls or passages. For example, combine this with Drag Big Dot, and have the dot on odd numbered coordinates, to easily draw the outline of a Maze.

Drag Move Dot: When this is checked, the dot movement commands will cause the bitmap pixel under the dot to be set. This allows you to draw on the bitmap by moving the dot around like a paintbrush. When the color bitmap is being displayed, this will draw on the color bitmap, and set pixels to either the Wall Color or the Passage Color as defined in the Set Colors dialog, based on the Drag Is Erase setting.

Drag Is Erase: When this is checked, having Drag Move Dot on will turn the pixels under the dot off. When unchecked, having Drag Move Dot on will turn the pixels under the dot on.

Drag Big Dot: When this is checked, having Drag Move Dot on will cause a 3x3 pixel rectangle around the dot to get set. In the normal case when unchecked, just the pixel under the dot will get set. Having this on is useful when manually drawing the outline for a standard orthogonal Maze, because the three pixel wide brush is the width of a single passage with a wall on either side.

Drag By Two: This is similar to Move By Two in that when checked the dot movement commands will move by two pixels instead of one. Here however when Drag Move Dot is on this will set both dots moved over instead of just the last one. Having this on is useful when manually drawing the solution to a standard orthogonal Maze. Combine this with Drag Move Dot and Drag Is Erase, and have the dot on the odd numbered coordinates corresponding to passages, to easily draw passages while staying on odd numbered coordinates.

Set At Dot: This simple command sets the pixel at the location of the dot to the Drag Is Erase color. This is a simpler way of setting a single pixel than turning Drag Move Dot on and moving once.

Zap Dot: This submenu contains commands which affect pixels in front of the direction the dot is facing. It’s as if the dot shoots a weapon which does something to the first wall in front of it.

Destroy Wall: This will turn off the first set pixel in front of the direction the dot is facing. If you’re frustrated with the difficulty of a Maze, this can allow you to smash through the wall you’re looking at. ;) The above assumes the dot is over an off pixel. If the dot is over a set pixel, this will do the opposite, and scan for the first off pixel in front of the dot and turn it on.

Make Wall Semitransparent: This will make the first wall in front of the direction the dot is facing semitransparent. A semitransparent wall can make a Maze easier to solve because you can see what’s behind it. See the Semitransparent Walls section of the Inside Settings dialog for more information on semitransparent walls.

Make Unsemitransparent: This will make the first semitransparent cell in front of the direction the dot is facing opaque. This will make a semitransparent wall opaque and “clear away the fog” in the case of a semitransparent passage.

2nd Dot: This submenu has commands involving the “second dot”. The second dot is like the dot, in that it’s an invisible cursor positioned over a particular pixel on the bitmap. Some of the commands here make use of two pixel locations, such as the line drawing command which requires two points to draw the line between. All of these commands (except Draw Disk and Circle) will instead operate on the color bitmap if the color bitmap is being shown.

Set To Dot: This sets the location of the second dot to the location of the main dot.

Draw Line: This draws a line between the main dot and the second dot, in the color indicated by the Drag Is Erase setting.

Draw Block: This draws a filled in rectangle whose opposite corners are indicated by the main dot and second dot, in the color of the Drag Is Erase setting. In 3D bitmaps this will draw a solid 3D block between opposite corners of a cube.

Draw Box: This draws a one pixel wide rectangle whose opposite corners are indicated by the dot and second dot, in the color of the Drag Is Erase setting.

Draw Disk: This draws a filled in circle or ellipse inside the bounding box whose opposite corners are indicated by the dot and second dot, in the color of the Drag Is Erase setting.

Draw Circle: This draws a one pixel wide circle or ellipse inside the bounding box whose opposite corners are indicated by the dot and second dot, in the color of the Drag Is Erase setting.

Get Section: This takes the contents of the main bitmap within the rectangle whose opposite corners are indicated by the dot and second dot, and puts a copy of it in the temporary bitmap. This can then be pasted back onto the main bitmap using the commands below to make copies of sections of the bitmap.

Put At Dot: This takes the contents of the temporary bitmap, and copies it on top of the main bitmap. The contents will be pasted at the location of the dot, where the dot will be the upper left corner of the pasted section.

Put With Or: This is like Put At Dot except the contents of the temporary bitmap will be copied onto the main bitmap with a “logical or” operation, where the pixels (or bits within pixels in the case of the color bitmap) will be set if they’re set in either the main or the temporary bitmap.

Put With And: This is like Put At Dot except the contents of the temporary bitmap will be copied onto the main bitmap with a “logical and” operation, where the pixels (or bits within pixels in the case of the color bitmap) will only be set if they’re set in both the main and the temporary bitmap.

Put With Xor: This is like Put At Dot except the contents of the temporary bitmap will be copied onto the main bitmap with a “logical exclusive or” operation, where the pixels (or bits within pixels in the case of the color bitmap) will be set if they’re set in the main bitmap or the temporary bitmap, but not both.

View Inside: When this is checked the window will contain a 3D first person perspective view from inside the bitmap. When unchecked, the window will contain the standard overhead view of the bitmap. The perspective inside view will be drawn as if you’re standing within the bitmap at the location of the dot, where on pixels are walls and off pixels are passages or open spaces. This view is designed to allow you to solve a Maze as if you were walking inside its passages. See the Inside Settings dialog for additional information about and settings related to this view. Many of the colors in this view can be changed in the Inside section of the Set Colors dialog. If the dot is on a set pixel, i.e. you’re inside of a wall, the screen will be filled with the color of the wall, which is like if the wall is a hedge and you’re forcing your way through it.

If the Edge Behavior setting in the Dot Settings dialog is set to Torus Wrapping, then the inside view won’t stop at the edges of the bitmap, but wrap around to the opposite edge like the surface of a torus. That makes the inside view appear to repeat copies of the bitmap off into the distance forever.

Map Inside: This shows a map of the current Maze overlaying the first person inside view (or the current level of the Maze for 3D Mazes). This is not unlike the standard overhead view of the bitmap, however the walls are always one pixel thick, the Maze is rotated so the direction the dot is facing is up, and the Maze is offset so the dot is in the middle of the screen. Most settings that affect the standard overhead view affect the map overlay too. The dot will be shown with the same color and shape, and the size of the passages are defined by the Horizontal & Vertical Pixel Value fields in Display Settings, i.e. are affected by the commands on the Cell Viewport Span submenu.

Mark 'X' At Dot: This allows you to mark your path or “leave a trail of breadcrumbs” in the first person perspective inside view. This will cause the floor section you’re over to be drawn in a different color, or in the Simple Perspective inside display mode this will cause there to be a large ‘X’ on the floor at your current location. Note you may not be able to see an ‘X’ that’s at your feet because you’re looking forward, however if you move and look back at the cell you were in you can see it. This is implemented by turning on the pixel in the temporary bitmap at the location of the dot. Basically every set pixel in the temporary bitmap that’s not set in the main bitmap, will cause there to be a marking at that location in the perspective inside view.

Erase 'X' At Dot: This is like Mark ‘X’ At Dot except it will erase any marking at your current location. In other words this turns off the pixel in the temporary bitmap at the location of the dot.

Inside Settings...: This dialog accesses all settings dealing with the first person perspective inside view.

Inside Display Mode: This section of radio buttons controls whether and in what form the first person perspective inside view is shown.

None: When selected, this turns off the perspective inside view. Instead the standard overhead view of the bitmap will be shown.

Jumpy Movement: When selected, this turns on the perspective inside view. This is a genuine perspective rendering, and can display open spaces, passages wider than a single pixel, or any other arrangement of pixels accurately. This view is available for 2D and 3D bitmaps, where in 3D bitmaps pits will be visible in the floor and ceiling indicating passages to adjoining levels. In this mode, the walls will be shaded based on what direction they’re facing. South facing walls will be lighter in color and North facing walls will be darker. There are no separate lines drawn to indicate edges, but the different sky and ground colors, along with the shading, make the corners apparent. If the color bitmap exists, the color to use for each wall piece, will be taken from the color at that location on the color bitmap, instead of everything being based on the Inside Wall color in the Set Colors Dialog. For example, run the Get From Bitmap command to copy the main to the color bitmap, then bring up the Replace Color dialog and replace the wall color i.e. white with one of the special blend sequences, and you’ll have the wall colors gradually change as you go through the Maze. Passages marked with the Mark ‘X’ At Dot command will have that whole floor section drawn in a different color. The floor color here will be taken from the color bitmap in the same way wall colors are.

Smooth Movement: This is like Jumpy Movement but will instead smoothly animate when you move and rotate. You will always be in the center of a cell facing in one of the four compass directions, however when you move or rotate you’ll see a number of intermediate frames. This can be considered a combination of Jumpy Movement above where your vantage point is always from the center of a cell facing in one of the compass directions, and Free Movement below where you can be anywhere facing in any direction. This can be considered the best of both worlds, where it takes a minimum of key presses to move through the Maze, but the animation isn’t jumpy.

Free Movement: This is a more advanced version of Jumpy Movement, as it allows you to face in any direction instead of just the four main compass directions, and allows you to stand at any location, instead of only in the very middle of pixels. Because of this, the location and direction of the dot is no longer enough to determine exactly where you are, where the Offset fields in the Free Movement section of the dialog indicate where within the current pixel you are and how far away from the nearest compass direction you’re facing.

Very Free Movement: This is just like Free Movement, however moving around the Maze will feel more fluid, like playing a video game. You don’t have to wait for key repeat to kick in, where holding down a key immediately continuously moves, and you can also hold down two keys at once (e.g. move forward plus rotate) and have them both take effect. The speed at which continuous movement happens is controlled by the Repeat Delay In Msec field in Display Settings.

Simple Perspective: This behaves like Jumpy Movement, but the display will be created with a different algorithm. The inside view here won’t be a true perspective rendering, and won’t display views of open spaces within a Maze very well. It’s really only good for views down one pixel wide passages in standard orthogonal Mazes. In this mode, the walls are always the same coloring, where there are lines drawn to indicate edges. That can make this mode more suitable for black and white printing. If the color bitmap exists, the color to use for all walls, will be taken from the color at your location on the color bitmap, instead of from the Inside Wall value in the Set Colors Dialog. Passages marked with the Mark ‘X’ At Dot command will show a large ‘X’ on that floor section. When the Stars setting is set, stars will show up on all pixels in the top half of the screen that are equal to the sky color. Hence you probably want to ensure the inside sky color is different from the inside wall color and inside line color, so stars are only drawn where they’re expected. Some Inside Settings have no effect in this mode, such as Sealed Entrances, Sun And Moon, and Semitransparent Walls.

Compass: If this is set, the direction you’re facing will be printed at the bottom of the screen in perspective inside view. This will always be one of the four main compass directions, or one of the eight directions for the Free Movement modes where you can look in any angle.

Compass Is Exact: If this is set, then when the compass direction is being displayed, its precise angle in degrees from 0 to 360 will be included too, where due North is 0, West is 90, and so on.

Cell Location: If this is set, the horizontal and vertical pixel location of where you’re at in perspective inside view (and your height or Z location when Bitmap Is 3D is checked) will be printed at the bottom of the screen. When Narrow Walls Inside is set, the coordinates will be of the dot’s cell location instead of pixel location, i.e. the pixel coordinates will be divided by two, so the movement commands which move by two pixels when Narrow Walls is set, will still cause the location to change by one unit at a time.

Map Overlay: This does the same thing as the Map Inside menu command on the Dot menu, however the menu command also turns on View Inside if not on already.

Sealed Entrances: When this is set, looking out the entrance or exit of a Maze in inside view will show a solid color (which can be considered a special wall, a door, or open void) instead of a distant horizon. The sealed entrance or exit will be in the Line color as defined in the Set Colors dialog.

Mountains: When this is set, mountains will be drawn in the background of the inside view. Their color is defined by the Mountain field in the Set Colors dialog. You’ll always see the same mountains when looking in a particular direction, although a new set will be generated each time the program is started, or when the Randomize Seed command is run.

Peak Height: This value controls how tall the mountains are drawn, as a percentage from the horizon to the top of the screen.

Cloud Count: This field allows clouds to appear in the perspective inside view. When set to a non-zero value, that many clouds will be drawn in the background. Their color is taken from the Cloud field in the Set Colors dialog. You’ll always see the same clouds when looking in a particular direction, although a new set will be generated each time the program is started, or when the Randomize Seed command is run. Note the first 16 clouds will never be placed due south or north, so they will never block the Sun or Moon.

Sun And Moon: When this is set, the inside view will show the Sun or Moon in the sky or ceiling area when facing south. If the Stars checkbox is off the Sun will be shown, and if Stars is on a crescent Moon will be shown.

Rainbow: When this is set, the inside view will display a rainbow in the sky when facing north.

Stars: If this is set, stars will be randomly drawn in the sky or ceiling area of the perspective inside view. The stars will be of different brightnesses, ranging from dim gray to bright white. Some will have a red, yellow, or blue tint. It’s recommended to have the Inside Sky color in the Set Colors dialog be a dark color like black in combination with this. You’ll always see the same stars when looking in a particular direction, although a new set will be generated each time the program is started. or when the Randomize Seed command is run.

Star Count: This value controls how many stars to draw when Stars Inside is set. Daedalus can draw up to 8000 stars.

Meteor Rate: This field allows shooting stars to sometimes be drawn in perspective inside view. This will happen when the Stars setting is on, and if this field is more than zero, where the percentage chance of one or more meteors happening in any screen redraw is controlled by this field. Meteors like the stars can be bright or dim, occasionally colored, can be long or short, and hidden behind mountains or foreground objects, so watching for them can be like looking for real meteors. :)

Motion Frames: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Smooth Movement. It sets the number of frames to animate when moving from cell to cell each time a motion command is run.

Rotation Frames: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Smooth Movement. It sets the number of frames to animate when rotating each time a turning command is run.

Up Down Frames: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Smooth Movement. It sets the number of frames to animate when moving vertically between 3D levels each time the Raise or Lower command is run.

Motion Velocity: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Free or Very Free Movement. It sets the number of inside units to move each time a motion command is run. Note if the Move By Two dot editing flag is on, movement will happen at twice the rate as is normal, allowing that setting to act as a “run” or “turbo” mode for the first person view. This is implemented by moving twice internally per screen update, where if the first move doesn’t actually move the dot, e.g. it bumped into a wall, the second move will be skipped.

Rotation Velocity: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Free Movement. It sets the number of degrees to rotate each time a turning command is run. Note if the Drag By Two dot editing flag is on, rotation in place will happen at twice the rate as normal.

Up Down Velocity: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Free Movement. It sets the number of inside units to move up or down each time the Raise or Lower command is run.

Horizontal & Vertical Offset: These only play a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Free Movement. They indicate the number of inside units the viewing location is from the center of the pixel. You probably don’t want to manually change these, where it’s easier to just use the arrow keys to move around, which will automatically update them.

Up Down Offset: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Free Movement. It indicates the number of inside units the vertical or Z-coordinate of the viewing location is above or below the center of the level. You probably don’t want to manually change this, where it’s easier to just use the Raise and Lower commands to move up and down, which will automatically update this.

Direction Offset: This only plays a role when Inside Display Mode is set to Free Movement. It indicates the number of degrees the viewing angle is different from the dot’s current compass direction. You probably don’t want to manually change this, where it’s easier to just use the Left and Right commands to rotate your view, which will automatically update this.

Up Down Smooth Not Free: This flag only has an effect when the inside display mode is set to Free Movement or Very Free Movement, and the Maze is 3D. It causes vertical movement between levels to be smoothly animated as in the Smooth Movement mode, while 2D movement is unchanged. In other words it allows fast switches between levels that ensure you never get stuck part way between them, while still allowing fine control of your location and direction within a level.

Narrow Walls: If this is set, walls will be narrower than passages in the perspective inside view, specifically they’ll be 1/8 the width. If this is unset, walls will be the same thickness as passages. In other words pixels in even numbered rows and columns will be drawn thinner than odd numbered rows and columns. When set, the dot movement commands will also move by two pixels instead of one, i.e. you’ll always move between odd numbered rows and columns, and hence move down passages faster.

Cell Size: This sets the number of inside units within each pixel. For example if Cell Size is set to 20, and Motion Velocity is set to 4, it will take five moves to travel from one cell to its neighbor. This also sets the number of inside units within each level. For example, if Cell Size is set to 18, and Up Down Velocity is set to 3, it will take six moves to travel from one level to the next.

Narrow Cell Size: This only plays a role when Narrow Walls Inside is set. This sets the number of inside units within walls or pixels in even numbered rows and columns. For example, if Cell Size is 16 and Narrow Cell Size is 8, walls will be 1/2 the thickness of passages.

Wall Height: This sets the height of walls. The number is relative to Cell Size, e.g. doubling Cell Size will have the same visual effect as halving Wall Height.

Viewing Height: Daedalus supports seeing the Maze from any height in the perspective inside view. Normally eye level is always half way between the bottom and tops of walls, but eye level can be set to anywhere, even high enough to look over the tops of walls and see other passages. This field controls the viewing elevation. Positive values will increasingly make you seem to float higher in the air, while negative will make you seem underground or with the Maze floating in midair. A Viewing Height of half the Wall Height will make eye level even with the tops of walls. A non-zero wall height may seem to draw slower, since the visible set of passages can increase to include the entire Maze, so it works best on a faster computer. Note ceiling markings become invisible if the View Height is positive, while floor markings become invisible if View Height is negative. Technically, eye level is always at the center of walls, where an alternate viewing height is implemented using the variable height walls ability, by treating all walls taller internally, combined with chopping the tops off, allowing one to look over them.

The Raise and Lower commands, i.e. pressing the “u” and “d” keys, will change the Viewing Height (for 2D Mazes that is, where in 3D Mazes these commands change levels.) The Viewing Height will be adjusted by the number of units in the Up Down Velocity free movement setting, allowing one to fly up or down. Being able to see over the tops of walls won’t affect any other behavior, i.e. walls will still block movement if the Walls Impassable dot setting is on.

Step Height: This field in the Inside Settings dialog controls a simple physics model, allowing one to climb on walls and be affected by gravity, and will automatically adjust the Viewing Height as one moves around. If non-negative, the field indicates how many inside units one can climb up at a time. A Step Height of at least half the Wall Height will allow one to climb on any block they can see over the top of, while a Step Height of at least the Wall Height will allow one to climb over default height walls. Note if one steps off an edge, they’re allowed to fall any distance. Variable height walls may be defined so that a block is suspended in air, in which case you will go underneath it if the bottom of the block is above eye level. This allows one to go over and well as under bridges. When active, actions that teleport the dot such as clicking the mouse will also set the Viewing Height so one is standing on the block at that location, whatever its height. If Step Height is -1, then this feature will be disabled, resulting in the old behavior of the Viewing Height always being the same, where movement is only affected by whether a wall is present. Note if the Walls Impassable dot setting is off, this field will also have no effect, where one will always be able to move through walls or space like a ghost without the Viewing Height changing.

Allow Texture Mapping: Daedalus supports texture mapping in the first person view, which means having walls, floor cells, or the background decorated with pictures instead of just solid colors. Texture mapping draws slower than solids, so if it makes screen updates happen too slowly it can be turned off altogether. If this setting is off, no texture mapping will happen, where even things that have textures defined for them will show as just a solid color.

For a good demo of texture mapping, run the “Dragonslayer Game” script, where you can see brick and stone walls among other things. Texture mapped walls can also be seen on the sides of pits in the floor and ceiling. For example, in the “Dragonslayer Game” script, make your way to the pit down the next level, and notice its sides show a stone pattern too.

Light Factor: This indicates how much lighter or darker south and north facing walls should be from the general wall color. The lower the value, the more similar the colors. If this value is negative, north facing walls will be lighter and south darker instead of vice-versa, and also the Sun or Moon will be displayed to the north instead of south, which can simulate a southern hemisphere location.

Fog Distance: Daedalus supports fog effects in the first person view. If this field is non-zero, the color of walls will increasingly fade the farther away they are. This gives better depth perception, where even walls of all the same base color will be shaded differently based on their distance from you. The larger the number, the greater the distance before the wall color will completely fade. Specifically it’s equal to one tenth the number of inside units before the fade limit is reached, e.g. a Fog Distance of 320 with a Cell Size of 160 means walls will completely fade after a distance of 20 cells. See the Fog field in the Set Colors dialog for the color things fade to.

Clipping Plane: This contains the clipping plane distance or how many pixels to look in each direction for a wall. If objects seem to suddenly pop into view in the distance, you might want to increase this. If the screen is taking a long time to update while in open spaces, you might want to decrease this.

Viewing Span: This sets how many degrees the inside view covers on either side of the direction being faced. For example, if this value is 50, your total viewing span will be 100 degrees. Low numbers give a “tunnel vision” effect, while high numbers do the opposite. Note changing this setting won’t affect the apparent height of walls, allowing one to change this setting without having to then adjust the Wall Height to avoid distortion. As the angle being viewed decreases or increases, walls will seem to approach or recede.

Stereo Width: The perspective inside view supports stereoscopic 3D graphics. When this is non-zero, the window will be split into two displays, showing the scene from slightly different viewpoints. When the two images are looked at together, with one image for each eye, the result in a true 3D effect. Classic 3D glasses, modern 3D movies, Google Cardboard, and random dot stereograms work the same way. The value indicates the distance in cell size units that the two views are from each other. If the value is negative, the leftmost image will be on the right half instead of on the left.

Semitransparent Walls: Walls in the perspective inside view can be semitransparent or translucent. They will look like large sections of colored class or forcefields where you can see what lies behind them, but tinted with the color of the wall. If you look through a blue semitransparent wall behind which is a red semitransparent wall, objects behind both walls will have a purplish tint. Passage cells can be displayed semitransparent too, and will look just like semitransparent walls, with the only difference being you can walk through them. Semitransparent walls or passages are indicated by having set pixels at that location in the extra bitmap.

None: This radio button disables display of semitransparent walls. All walls will appear opaque regardless of the contents of the extra bitmap.

Fast Drawing: This radio button enables display of semitransparent walls. Every pixel’s color will be a blend between the wall’s color at that point and what’s behind it.

Thorough Drawing: This also enables display of semitransparent walls. It shows slightly more detail than Fast Drawing, and will include transitions between adjacent semitransparent blocks. Fast Drawing won’t do this, even if they’re different colors or have a texture.

Very Thorough: This is the same as Thorough Drawing except the thickness of semitransparent walls will also be apparent. Objects seen through the top and bottom of the wall section will be drawn slightly darker than those seen though the back of the wall section. With Fast and Thorough Drawing only the front faces of walls are colored, which can make the wall look more like a sheet of paper than a solid block.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - BITMAP MENU

Bitmap Menu: This contains general graphics commands that operate on the bitmap as a whole, such as clearing, resizing, zooming, and copying. They affect the main monochrome bitmap, and will do a similar action on the color bitmap if the color bitmap is being shown.

Size...: This dialog allows changing the size or dimensions of the active bitmap.

Set Lower Right Bound: When this radio button is selected, you resize the bitmap by specifying the new horizontal and vertical pixel size of it. This will either add to or remove from the bottom right corner depending on whether you’re making the bitmap larger or smaller. When making the bitmap larger, rows and columns of off or black pixels are added to the bottom right corner.

Shift Down And Right By: When this radio button is selected, you resize the bitmap by specifying how much larger or smaller you want it to be, i.e. how many columns and rows to add. This will either add to or remove from the top left corner of the bitmap depending on whether you enter positive or negative numbers. When making the bitmap larger, rows and columns of off or black pixels are added to the top left corner.

Horizontal & Vertical Size: These two values indicate the current size of the bitmap. Change these values to the new size of the bitmap, or the amount that you want to enlarge the bitmap by, to resize it. When Set Lower Right Bound is set, these numbers can be negative, and will resize the bitmap down by that amount, e.g. -10 will subtract ten pixels from the bitmap’s size. Daedalus bitmaps may potentially be up to 2^31-1 or 2147483647 pixels in each dimension. Note the largest bitmaps may cause out of memory errors in allocating the bitmap itself, or errors in displaying such bitmaps in a window. For example, a monochrome bitmap may be 81000x81000 pixels, and a color bitmap may be 20000x20000 pixels, before the memory allocation exceeds one gigabyte, which is the single allocation limit on some systems. Some features and commands require bitmaps smaller than a certain size (such as 64K by 64K pixels, or the limitations of the Windows bitmap file format) but in that case the command itself will check for an appropriate size before proceeding.

Clear Bitmap After Sizing: When this is set, after the bitmap is resized, all pixels in it will be set to off or black. Internally Daedalus resizes a bitmap by creating a new bitmap of the destination size, then copying the contents of the old bitmap to the new one. When dealing with very large bitmaps, this copying can take a few seconds. Having this set can make the resize faster.

3D Bitmap: This section contains the size or dimensions of the 3D bitmap within the main bitmap. These fields are used when creating 3D Mazes, 4D Mazes, and Planair Mazes, and should be set to the desired values before creating such Mazes.

X: This contains the number of horizontal pixels within each level or section in a 3D or 4D or Planair Maze. The number of horizontal passages will be one less than half this number. Loading a 3D bitmap with the 3D Bitmap Open command will set this value.

Y: This contains the number of vertical pixels within each level or section in a 3D or 4D or Planair Maze. The number of vertical passages will be one less than half this number. Loading a 3D bitmap with the 3D Bitmap Open command will set this value.

Z: This contains the number of 3D levels in a 3D or 4D Maze. This is the number of actual bitmap sections, which includes sections between passage levels indicating the passage connections between the levels. The number of actual passage levels will be half this number. Loading a 3D bitmap with the 3D Bitmap Open command will set this value. For Planair Mazes this field is ignored.

W: For 3D and Planair Mazes this contains the number of sections per row. This allows the sections to be arranged in a grid instead of having to be in a single line. This affects the arrangement of sections when loading a 3D bitmap as well as when creating a 3D or Planair Maze. For 4D Mazes this contains the number of levels along the 4th axis or through the 4th dimension. This is the number of actual bitmap sections, where the number of 4D passage levels will be half this number. 4D Mazes are arranged as a 2D grid of 2D sections or levels.

Common Sizes: This submenu allows automatically resizing the bitmap to any one of 19 predefined sizes.

All: This submenu allows doing things to all the pixels in the main or color bitmaps.

Clear All: This clears or turns off all pixels in the bitmap.

Set All: This sets or turns on all pixels in the bitmap.

Invert All: This inverts or reverses all pixels in the bitmap, where all off pixels become on and vice versa.

Random All: This randomly sets all pixels in the main bitmap, with a 50% chance of any pixel being on or off. This percentage is modified by the Random Bias setting, which is added to the percentage of pixels being on. For example, a Random Bias field of -10 means a 40% chance each pixel will be on. When the color bitmap is being shown, this will instead set each pixel in the color bitmap to a random 24 bit color.

Zoom...: This dialog is similar to the Size dialog in that it resizes the active bitmap, however here you’re zooming or stretching the contents of the bitmap instead of just adding rows and columns to it.

Zoom By Factor: When this radio button is selected, you zoom the bitmap by specifying the factor or ratio by which you want its horizontal and vertical size enlarged. For example, entering 2 and 2 will double the dimensions of the bitmap, where each pixel in the old bitmap zooms to a 2x2 section of pixels in the new bitmap. You may enter floating point numbers here to zoom by an non-integer percentage.

Zoom To Size: When this radio button is selected, you zoom the bitmap by specifying its new horizontal and vertical pixel size. The bitmap will be resized, and its contents will be stretched or shrunk to fit in the new size, with rows and columns being duplicated or dropped as needed.

Horizontal & Vertical: Set these values to either the horizontal and vertical factor to zoom the bitmap by, or the new pixel size to zoom the bitmap to. Note these fields can also be negative. When Zoom By Factor is set, negative numbers will shrink the bitmap to that fraction, e.g. -3 will shrink the bitmap down to one third of its original size. When Zoom To Size is set, negative numbers will shrink the size of the bitmap by that amount, e.g. -10 will shrink the bitmap down by ten pixels.

Drop Lines When Shrinking: When set, then when shrinking or zooming the bitmap down, certain rows and columns will just be dropped.

Preserve On When Shrinking: When set, in monochrome bitmaps priority will be given to any on pixels when zooming the bitmap down. This means in each section of pixels that will become a single pixel in the new smaller bitmap, if any pixel in that section is on, the new pixel will be on. Only if all pixels in a section are off, will the new pixel be off. Normally when shrinking, Zoom will just pick the first pixel from each section. For example, assume you have a solution to a very large Maze, consisting of a thin line of on pixels; with this checkbox set, you can shrink it to a smaller bitmap, and still see a continuous path without any part of it having been dropped or lost in the shrinking.

When this is set in color bitmaps, pixels will be set to the blended mixture of all pixels mapping to it. When zooming a color bitmap to an equal or larger dimension, this setting will make pixels be a gradual gradient between adjacent colors. In other words each destination pixel will be proportionally blended from the four source pixels located closest to it.

Tessellate Instead Of Zoom: When set, zooming won’t stretch the bitmap at all to whatever size, but will rather tile or tessellate the bitmap’s old contents through the new size.

Flip And Rotate: This submenu has commands to flip and rotate the contents of the main or color bitmaps.

Flip Horizontal: This flips the bitmap from left to right.

Flip Vertical: This flips the bitmap from top to bottom.

Transpose: This flips the bitmap across the main diagonal that runs from the upper left corner to the lower right.

Rotate Right: This rotates the bitmap to the right 90 degrees.

Rotate Left: This rotates the bitmap to the left 90 degrees.

Rotate Across: This rotates the bitmap 180 degrees, turning it upside down.

3D Bitmap...: This dialog allows flipping and rotating the 3D bitmap stored in the active bitmap. This can be used to view other sides of the 3D bitmap in the Render Bitmap Overview command.

X & Y & Z: These radio buttons in the Axis group indicate which axis of the 3D bitmap to operate on.

Flip: This radio button in the Operation group means to flip the 3D bitmap through the axis specified above.

Rotate Right & Rotate Left & Rotate Across: These radio buttons in the Operation group mean to do the same as the Rotate Right, Rotate Left, and Rotate Across commands, however they do that to all layers of the 3D bitmap along the axis specified above.

Temp Bitmap: This submenu has commands involving the temporary bitmap. When the color bitmap is being displayed, these commands deal with the the temporary color bitmap, otherwise they affect the temporary main bitmap.

Get: This copies the main bitmap to the temporary bitmap. This can be used as an undo feature. If you make a mistake when editing the main bitmap, you can go back to this copy you made by using the Put command below.

Put: This copies the temporary bitmap to the main bitmap.

Swap: This swaps the main bitmap and the temporary bitmap with each other.

Or: This is like Put except the contents of the temporary bitmap will be copied on top of the main bitmap with a “logical or” operation, where the pixels (or bits within pixels in the case of the color bitmap) will be set if they’re set in either the main or the temporary bitmap.

And: This is like Put except the contents of the temporary bitmap will be copied on top of the main bitmap with a “logical and” operation, where the pixels (or bits within pixels in the case of the color bitmap) will only be set if they’re set in both the main and the temporary bitmap.

Xor: This is like Put except the contents of the temporary bitmap will be copied on top of the main bitmap with a “logical exclusive or” operation, where the pixels (or bits within pixels in the case of the color bitmap) will be set if they’re set in the main or the temporary bitmap, but not both.

Blend: This edits the main bitmap by combining the temporary bitmap with it. When Show Color Bitmap is off, the combined bitmap takes every other pixel from the original main bitmap and every other from the temporary. When the color bitmap is active, the combined bitmap’s colors are half way between the original color bitmap and the temporary color bitmap.

Tessellate: This is like the Put command in that it copies the contents of the temporary bitmap to the main bitmap, except this doesn’t change the size of the main bitmap, but rather tiles or tessellates copies of the temporary bitmap across and down it. This is a quick way to make a mosaic of a small bitmap pattern within a larger bounds.

Delete: This deletes the temporary bitmap, returning it to the way it is when the program starts. This is a quick way to make the contents of this bitmap no longer affect other commands or displays, e.g. this will remove all floor markings in the perspective inside view.

Extra Bitmap: This submenu has commands involving the extra bitmap. The extra bitmap is like another temporary bitmap, and like it may be used for general bitmap editing purposes. When the color bitmap is being displayed, these commands deal with the extra color bitmap, otherwise they affect the extra main bitmap.

Get: This copies the main bitmap to the extra bitmap.

Put: This copies the extra bitmap to the main bitmap.

Swap: This swaps the main bitmap and the extra bitmap with each other.

Delete: This deletes the extra bitmap, returning it to the way it is when the program starts. This is a quick way to make the contents of this bitmap no longer affect other commands or displays, e.g. this will remove all semitransparent sections in the perspective inside view.

Collapse To Set: This makes the active bitmap smaller, such that all blank rows and columns (i.e. entirely composed of off or black pixels) on the edges of the bitmap are removed. In other words this trims off any blank rows and columns from the top, left, bottom, and right edges. If the Bitmap Is 3D command is checked, this will treat the bitmap as 3D and remove off pixels from all six faces around a 3D block containing on pixels.

Smooth Zoomed: This attempts to make diagonal lines in a zoomed bitmap look smoother. This command first automatically zooms the bitmap by a factor of two. After zooming by 200%, diagonal lines will be composed of 2x2 blocks and hence look like stairs. This command will set the pixels inside the “stairs” between two blocks, turning it into a thick diagonal line. This is best used with a Maze type that involves non-orthogonal walls such as a Crack Maze. Create a Crack Maze, then select Smooth Zoomed and notice how less rough the walls look.

When No Corner Hopping is off, Smooth Zoomed will set additional pixels. Sometimes where there are three of four pixels set in a 2x2 block, this will set the pixel in the corner. The logic is to still do smoothing if there are branches along a diagonal line, but to leave sharp right angle corners alone.

Smooth Corners: This smoothes the corners in the bitmap by turning off pixels that are at corners. This is best used after zooming a Maze or other bitmap by a certain factor, to make the corners of walls look rounder. This command may be run multiple times to further round off the corners. Note this only smoothes walls or sections of the bitmap composed of on pixels. You can smooth passages or off sections of the bitmap by reversing the bitmap with Invert All, running Smooth Corners, then inverting the bitmap back.

Thicken: This makes everything in the main bitmap appear thicker. Basically every set pixel will expand into a 2x2 block, absorbing the off pixels next to it. This doesn’t resize the bitmap any. This command may be run multiple times to further fatten everything. This works well with Maze types such as Omega Mazes and Labyrinths when drawn in a high resolution bitmap, to make those Maze’s one pixel wide lines not appear so thin.

If the color bitmap is being shown, this will instead operate on the color bitmap and do a blur effect, and blend the color of each pixel with the pixels surrounding it. If the Edge Behavior setting in the Dot Settings dialog is set to Torus Wrapping, this command when applied to a color bitmap will wrap around while considering adjacent pixels.

Make Thinner: This is roughly an inverse of the Thicken command. This makes all content in the bitmap thinner, where usually nothing left is more than one pixel wide, with few or no 2x2 blocks anywhere. This won’t fundamentally change the structure of content, i.e. it won’t divide objects, add holes, or make anything shorter. For example, running this on a solid 10x20 rectangle will result in a length 10 horizontal line intersecting a length 20 vertical line. This can be a good command to run before Graph Walls, as that works on one pixel wide walls, and this converts everything to one pixel wide walls. If the No Corner Hopping setting is off, this will remove even more pixels, by allowing removals that only leave pixels connected diagonally, where this will remove most 2x2 blocks of on pixels that weren’t carved into before.

When the color bitmap is being shown, the Make Thinner command will map each pixel to the nearest color of the rainbow. If the Special To Pattern setting in the Replace Color dialog is set to Straight Color Blend, this will instead convert the image to a maximum contrast version of itself. All colors will be converted to the nearest of eight colors, i.e. all combinations of RGB values whose components are either 0 or 255.

Accent Boundaries: This basically zooms the active bitmap by 200%, making it about twice the size of the old bitmap, but does it in a special way. Boundaries or edges between sections of on pixels and sections of off pixels in the old bitmap, become lines of on pixels in the new bitmap, while boundaries between pixels that are the same in the old bitmap, become off in the new bitmap. There is one off pixel in the new bitmap corresponding to the middle of each pixel in the old bitmap. For example, an on pixel completely surrounded by off pixels (as well as an off pixel surrounded by on pixels) will become a small one pixel wide rectangle of set pixels. When applied to color bitmaps, black pixels are considered off, and non-black are on.

Fill At Dot: This fills in the area or object that the dot is within, regardless of its shape. If the dot is over an off pixel, this will fill the area with on pixels until walls of on pixels are hit, like dumping a bucket of paint into it. If the dot is over an on pixel, this will do the opposite and fill in the area with off pixels until boundaries of off pixels are hit. If the Bitmap Is 3D setting is on, this will do a 3D fill, and will look in the four main directions as well as up and down for additional pixels to fill.

If Show Color Bitmap is on, this instead fills in the area that the dot is within on the color bitmap, with the color of the dot. The area to be filled is indicated by the color that the dot is over. All other colors will mark the boundary to stop filling at.

Flood At Dot: This is like Fill At Dot except here the filling can proceed diagonally. The Fill At Dot command only looks in the four main directions for additional pixels to fill. This command looks in all eight directions. A one pixel wide diagonal line will stop the Fill At Dot command, but Flood At Dot will bleed through and keep going. Like Fill At Dot, this also works on the color bitmap.

Slide To Dot: This edits the active bitmap by “sliding” it so that the pixel under the dot becomes centered in the bitmap. This doesn’t change the bitmap’s size or lose any data, where pixels that move off one edge of the bitmap reappear on the other.

Row Column Edits: This submenu has commands to insert or delete rows or columns in the bitmap.

Insert Column At Dot: This takes the column at the horizontal location of the dot, and duplicates or makes a copy of it, making the bitmap that much larger.

Delete Column At Dot: This takes the column at the horizontal location of the dot, and removes it, making the bitmap that much smaller.

Insert Row At Dot: This takes the row at the vertical location of the dot, and duplicates it.

Delete Row At Dot: This takes the row at the vertical location of the dot, and removes it.

Insert Columns At Dots: This takes the columns between the horizontal locations of the dot and second dot, and duplicates them.

Delete Columns At Dots: This takes the columns between the horizontal locations of the dot and second dot, and removes them.

Insert Rows At Dots: This takes the rows between the vertical locations of the dot and second dot, and duplicates them.

Delete Rows At Dots: This takes the rows between the vertical locations of the dot and second dot, and removes them.

Bitmap Is 3D: This is a general setting indicating whether the bitmap should be treated as a 3D bitmap. When checked, the first person perspective inside view will be of the 3D bitmap within the main bitmap instead of just of the 2D main bitmap itself. This will cause there to seem to be pits or holes in the floor and ceiling, i.e. passages going up and down, in addition to passages in the four compass directions. Creating a 3D Maze and other commands that operate on or have as their result a 3D Maze will automatically turn this setting on. Similarly creating a 2D Maze and other commands that treat the bitmap as a 2D plane will automatically turn this off. Note this should only be turned on for 3D Mazes. Trying to view a 2D Maze or any other bitmap as a 3D Maze will result in what looks like random garbage. This setting affects other features of the program too, such as mouse clicks.

Count Pixels: This counts the number of set and reset pixels in the main bitmap. The total number of pixels will be printed, along the number that are on and the number that are off, and their percentages. If the color bitmap is being shown, this command will instead operate on the color bitmap, and display the number of pure black, pure white, other grayscale, and actual colored pixels, along with the percentage red, green, and blue intensities of the average pixel.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - COLOR MENU

Color Menu: This contains all commands affecting the color bitmap, such as the ability to load or copy to it, and save or copy from it. Most commands set the color bitmap in an interesting way based on other bitmaps, although some operate on the color bitmap itself.

Show Color Bitmap: When this menu item is checked, the window will show the color bitmap. When this is unchecked, the window will show the main monochrome bitmap. Note most commands on this menu will automatically switch to showing the color bitmap. Also most commands here, if the color bitmap doesn’t already exist, will automatically copy the main bitmap to the color bitmap before continuing. Similarly most commands that only operate on the main bitmap, such as Maze creation, will automatically turn this setting off and switch to showing the main monochrome bitmap.

Color Targa File: This submenu has commands to load and save targa format graphics files. This is not a Windows specific format so may be used to transfer files to or from non-Windows systems.

Open...: This saves the color bitmap to a 24 bit color targa graphics file.

Save...: This loads a targa graphics file into the color bitmap. The file must be in 24 bit color.

Bitmap: This submenu has commands to transfer content between the main bitmap and the color bitmap.

Get From Bitmap: This copies the main bitmap to the color bitmap. Off pixels in the main bitmap will become the Passage color as set in the Set Colors dialog, and on pixels will become the Wall color.

Put To Bitmap: This copies the color bitmap to the main bitmap. Only color bitmap pixels that are pure black will become off pixels; all other colors will become on pixels.

Put To Bitmap (Nearest): This copies the color bitmap to the main bitmap, where color bitmap pixels that are closer to black than white in brightness will become off pixels; all others will become on pixels.

Put to Bitmap (Dither): This copies the color bitmap to the main bitmap, where color bitmap pixels of a particular color will become either on or off pixels in an appropriate percentage and distribution based on the color’s brightness.

Or From Bitmap: This is like Get From Bitmap except the contents of the main bitmap will be copied on top of the color bitmap with a “logical or” operation, where the bits in the RGB values of the main and color bitmap pixel colors will be merged with a logical or.

And From Bitmap: This is like Get From Bitmap except the contents of the main bitmap will be copied on top of the color bitmap with a “logical and” operation, where the bits in the RGB values of the main and color bitmap pixel colors will be merged with a logical and.

Xor From Bitmap: This is like Get From Bitmap except the contents of the main bitmap will be copied on top of the color bitmap with a “logical exclusive or” operation, where the bits in the RGB values of the main and color bitmap pixel colors will be merged together with a logical exclusive or.

Blend From 2 Bitmaps: This sets the color bitmap to an overlay of the main and temporary bitmaps. Pixels that are on in both the main and temporary bitmaps become white in the color bitmap, and pixels that are off in both bitmaps become black. Pixels that are on in the main bitmap (but not the temporary) become red in the color bitmap, and pixels that are on in the temporary bitmap (but not the main) become cyan. This can be used to show a Maze and its solution together. Copy a Maze to the temporary bitmap, solve it so its solution is in the main bitmap, then do Blend From 2 Bitmaps, and see the Maze in the color bitmap with passages in one color and its solution in another.

Blend From 3 Bitmaps: This is an extended version of Blend From 2 Bitmaps. It will blend three bitmaps together into the color bitmap: the main bitmap, the temporary bitmap, and the extra bitmap. The pixels in the color bitmap will be set to RGB values, where the main bitmap is the red component, the temporary is the green component, and the extra the blue component. For example, pixels set in only the main bitmap will be red, and pixels set in the main and temporary bitmaps but not the extra will be yellow (i.e. red + green). Note this command does the same thing as Blend From 2 Bitmaps when the temporary and extra bitmaps are identical.

Graph Distance: This is designed to analyze the passages in a Maze to show how far it is to reach certain points relative to other points. The color bitmap will be set to a copy of the main bitmap, and then all passages or areas reachable from the start will be filled in with varying colors indicating their distance from the start. The starting point is the location of the dot. If the dot is not over an off pixel, the first off pixel in the main bitmap will be used instead. The colors used will be based on the colors in the special blend pattern section in the Replace Color dialog. In other words it will be a blend through colors of the rainbow, or a straight blend from one color to another. The blend start color will be for pixels next to the dot, while the blend end color will be for the pixels farthest away from the dot, where all other pixels are colored proportionally based on their distance. You can use the Replace Color dialog to replace a color with itself if you want to just set the blend color setting to use. For 2D bitmaps, if No Corner Hopping in Dot Settings is off, passage connections can happen diagonally as well as orthogonally.

Note you can also do Graph Distance with multiple start locations. If the temporary bitmap exists, and is the same size as the main bitmap, and all off pixels in the temporary bitmap are also off in the main bitmap, and there’s at least one pixel on in the main bitmap that’s off in the temporary (in other words the set of off pixels in the temporary bitmap is a proper subset of the off pixels in the main bitmap) then all off pixels in the temporary bitmap will be starting points like the dot. For example, one can graph how far away pixels are from the solution path to a Maze, by having the Maze in the main bitmap, the solution in the temporary, and then doing Graph Distance, so that the graphing simultaneously starts from every pixel along the solution path. This command will print the longest distance to any point from the starting point or points. Note the longest distance from the set of points along the solution path is one way to measure the difficulty of a Maze, where longer distances often mean a harder Maze, since one can get farther off the right path before having to backtrack.

Graph Walls: Similar to Graph Distance, this is a good way to see the internal structure of a Maze, and see roughly the solution and main false paths. This will instead flood along the tops of walls, and make the color bitmap be a copy of the main bitmap with appropriately colored walls. Flooding starts at all wall endpoints, and changes color as it moves down the tree of walls. Any walls that form loops, marking out inaccessible sections (along with walls between such loops) are never colored. If No Corner Hopping in Dot Settings is off, walls are allowed to connect diagonally. This basically shows the importance of each wall segment, or the distance it takes to walk from one side of a wall segment to the opposite side. Unimportant walls that are easy to get around get early colors, while significant walls that define the main sections in the Maze get late colors, while necessary walls that mark out inaccessible locations aren’t colored at all. The colors used for walls come from the blend in the Replace Color dialog. A straight color blend, say from the passage color to a bright color, works best for this command, where unimportant walls will be dim and important walls will be bright.

Antialias From Bitmap: This submenu has commands to set the color bitmap to an antialiased version of the main bitmap. The color bitmap will be smaller than the main bitmap, where each pixel will be the passage color, the wall color, or an appropriate shade in between. Each color pixel will cover a certain section of pixels in the main bitmap, where the more on pixels in that section, the closer the shade to the wall color. There are seven commands on this submenu, which deal with 2x2 to 8x8 areas in the main bitmap. Antialiasing can make things such as thick diagonal lines look very smooth, because boundary pixels can be shades of gray instead of everything having to be either black or white. This works best with Maze types involving non-orthogonal lines such as Omega Mazes and Labyrinths. For example, create a Labyrinth in a large bitmap such as 500x500, run the Thicken command a few times to thicken the walls, then do a 2x2 Antialias which will make the color bitmap be 250x250. Compare the smoothness of the result with another 250x250 Labyrinth drawn in the monochrome main bitmap.

Note everything available on this menu and then some can also be done in the Zoom dialog. Simply copy the monochrome bitmap to the color bitmap, then zoom the color bitmap down by the appropriate scale with the Preserve On When Shrinking checkbox set.

Dot Color: This submenu does various things to the color bitmap with the color of the dot as defined in the Set Colors dialog.

Set To Color: This sets all pixels in the color bitmap to the color of the dot.

Or With Color: This merges the color of the dot with all pixels in the color bitmap using a “logical or” operation.

And With Color: This merges the color of the dot with all pixels in the color bitmap using a “logical and” operation.

Xor With Color: This merges the color of the dot with all pixels in the color bitmap using a “logical exclusive or” operation.

Add With Color: This adds the dot’s color to each pixel, where if an RGB component reaches 255 it will stay there.

Subtract With Color: This sets each pixel to the difference between its and the dot’s color.

Multiply With Color: This sets each pixel to the product of its and the dot’s color, where if an RGB component reaches 255 it will stay there.

Min With Color: This sets each pixel to the minimum of its and the dot’s color, each RGB component being considered separately.

Max With Color: This sets each pixel to the maximum of its and the dot’s color, each RGB component being considered separately.

Blend With Color: This sets each pixel to the midpoint between its and the dot’s color.

Color Bitmap: This submenu has commands involving the temporary color bitmap and additional commands affecting the color bitmap itself.

Add With Temp: This edits the color bitmap by combining the temporary color bitmap with it. The combined bitmap’s pixels will have RGB values set to the sum of those in the original color and temporary color bitmaps. The new image will be lighter than before, where some areas may become solid white.

Subtract With Temp: This is like Add except the combined bitmap’s pixels will have RGB values set to the difference between those in the original color and temporary color bitmaps.

Alpha With Temp: This is similar to the Blend command on the Temp Bitmap submenu. Instead of the main color bitmap being half way between the main and temporary color bitmaps, this uses the extra color bitmap as a transparency indicator or alpha channel. Each pixel in the extra bitmap indicates how much to bias each RGB component between the main and temporary bitmaps, ranging from 0 (entirely main bitmap) to 255 (entirely temporary bitmap).

Delete: This just deletes the color bitmap, returning it to the way it is when the program starts. This is a quick way to make the contents of this bitmap no longer affect other commands or displays, i.e. this removes all localized color from walls and floor markings in the perspective inside view.

Make Grayscale: This turns the color bitmap into a black and white or grayscale version of itself. Each pixel will turn into a shade of gray corresponding to its brightness.

Apply Texture: This submenu has commands to use bitmaps to texture map parts of the first person view, or set block elevations within it. These just give the same texture to every spot, where taking full advantage of the program’s texture mapping capabilities requires knowledge of the Daedalus scripting language, described in the script.txt file.

Background: This applies a texture to the background area, or the part of the first person view that composes the sky or ceiling half. A copy of the current contents of the color bitmap will be used as the background for 2D Mazes and for the top level in 3D Mazes, instead of the solid inside sky color. If the temporary color bitmap exists, it will be used as the background for all levels in 3D Mazes except the top level, instead of the inside 3D ceiling color. Decorations such as mountains and stars will still be drawn when appropriate, just on top of the background texture instead of whatever solid color. If the fSkyAll macro setting is on, the background texture will be applied over the whole background, covering the ground half in addition to the sky half. The default behavior is better, as it avoids an unchanging picture on the ground as you move forward or backward.

Color Walls: This applies a color texture map to the walls. A copy of the current contents of the color bitmap will be used as the texture for all walls, covering them like wallpaper. If the Narrow Walls setting is on, then a copy of the temporary color bitmap will be instead used for the narrower wall segments. If one of the color bitmaps doesn’t exist, then a copy of the other bitmap clipped or tessellated appropriately will be used in its place. This behavior prevents textures from appearing unnaturally stretched or compressed on faces of different sizes. If Light Factor in Inside Settings is non-zero at the time the command is run, then the textures created will be shaded the same amount.

Overlay Walls: This is a monochrome version of Color Walls, except here the bitmap texture doesn’t totally cover the old wall color. The bitmap texture appears as either a black or white overlay on top of whatever solid wall color, like a tattoo. If Drag Is Erase in Dot Settings is off, then off pixels in the bitmap texture will appear as black on walls, and on pixels in the texture will appear as whatever the wall’s untextured color is. If Drag Is Erase is on, then on pixels in the texture will appear as white on walls, and off pixels will be the wall’s color. A copy of the current contents of the temporary monochrome bitmap is used as the texture overlay. If Narrow Walls is on, then a copy of the extra bitmap will be instead used for the narrow wall segments. If one of the monochrome bitmaps doesn’t exist, then a copy of the other clipped or tessellated appropriately will be used in its place. For a demo of monochrome texture overlays, run the “Survivor Squares Game” script, which has black numbers drawn on the eight players.

Color Overlay Walls: This is a combination of Color Walls and Overlay Walls. It does an overlay on top of the existing wall color like Overlay Walls, but overlays with different colors instead of always in black or white. This uses a copy of the color bitmap (and temporary color bitmap if Narrow Walls is on) for the actual overlay, and uses the temporary monochrome bitmap (and extra monochrome bitmap if Narrow Walls is on) for the mask. If Drag Is Erase in Dot Settings is off, then on pixels in the mask bitmap will appear as pixels from the color texture, and off pixels will be the wall’s color. If Drag Is Erase is on, then off pixels in the mask will appear from the color texture, and on pixels will be the wall’s color.

Color Ground & Overlay Ground & Color Overlay Ground: Daedalus supports texture mapped floors in the perspective inside view, where floor squares can be decorated with bitmap patterns. This ability can be demoed with these commands, which do the same thing as the Color Walls, Overlay Walls, and Color Overlay Walls commands, but affect the floor instead of walls. These commands take the bitmap and overlay from the color bitmap (using the main bitmap if the color bitmap doesn’t exist) and temporary monochrome bitmap (using the main bitmap if it doesn’t exist). If the Narrow Walls inside setting is set, cells that are thinner horizontally, vertically, or both will be textured with versions of the input bitmaps truncated or tessellated appropriately. For a demo of monochrome floor texture overlays, run the “Dragonslayer Game” script, which has textures for objects on the ground and open doors.

Color Blocks & Overlay Blocks & Color Overlay Blocks: Daedalus supports texture mapping on the top and bottom surfaces of wall blocks in the perspective inside view, where these squares can be decorated with bitmap patterns like ground squares can. This can be demoed with these commands, which do the same thing as the Color Ground, Overlay Ground, and Color Overlay Ground commands, but affect blocks instead of the ground. As with the Ground commands, these commands make use of the color bitmap (using the main bitmap if the color bitmap doesn’t exist) and temporary monochrome bitmap (using the main bitmap if it doesn’t exist). For a demo of block texture overlays, run the “Survivor Maze #7” or “Survivor Maze #8” scripts, which have textures for blocks in places such as on the tops of guideposts and key stations.

Ceiling: Daedalus supports colored markings on the ceiling in the perspective inside view, in the same way that it supports markings on the ground. This command will completely cover the ceiling area of the bitmap. Any colors or textures on the ground will also appear on the ceiling, where the default ceiling color for places that have no ground marking will be the 3D Wall color. If the color bitmap exists when the command is run, the ceiling will contain and show a separate copy of those colors, and won’t change if ground colors later change. If the color bitmap doesn’t exist, ceiling colors will always be the same as corresponding ground colors, changing when they change.

Variable Height Walls: This command will apply an elevation to every pixel in the bitmap. This will make the Maze to appear to be on a hill, instead of on a flat plain. The elevations will be based on the most recent special pattern used in the Replace Color dialog. Red in the rainbow or Blend color #1 defines the highest elevation, and Cyan or Blend color #2 the lowest. By default this will make the Maze appear to be in a circular valley, high on the edges and low in the middle, allowing one to see walls on the opposite side of the Maze as they move around. If however, for example, you do a replace with pattern “#”, combined with setting the Rainbow Start field to 360, then the result will be the Maze on the surface of a pyramid, with the apex in the middle. Note the same maximum height is given regardless of bitmap size, so if the bitmap is too small or a too irregular Replace Color pattern was defined, some passages may be too steep to navigate, or some walls may be low enough to climb.

Ground Elevation: This command will show random hills in the perspective inside view. This display demos the ability for the ground to have variable elevation, which is a feature independent of the existing variable height walls. If the color bitmap is active, the ground colors will be set based on the elevation of each cell, using the pattern from the Replace Color dialog. The scene will take into account where blocks or on pixels are in the main monochrome bitmap. The end result will be rolling hills, with blocks placed above them and made tall enough so movement won’t accidentally step one on top of a wall. You can even change which pixels are set, such as by making a new Maze, and newly appearing blocks will have appropriate elevations.

Delete: This deletes any texture bitmaps in memory, such that the background and all walls in the first person view will have no textures defined for them, and will display in solid colors. Texture bitmaps are stored separately from the main, temporary, and extra bitmaps, so changing the three standard bitmaps after running the commands above won’t affect the textures any.

Brightness...: This dialog allows one to brighten or darken all pixels in the color bitmap, along with additional transformations.

Brighten All By Factor: When selected, all pixels will be brightened or darkened by the same factor. The Transform Amount field will indicate the factor to apply to each pixel, and ranges from -1.0 to 1.0, where negative numbers darken and positive brighten.

Brighten All By Offset: When selected, all pixels will be brightened or darkened by the same offset. The Transform Amount field will indicate the amount to be added to the red, green, and blue parts of each pixel’s color, and ranges from -255 to 255.

Brighten All By Multiplier: When selected, all pixels will have their components multiplied by the same factor. The Transform Amount field will indicate the factor to be multiplied to the red, green, and blue parts of each pixel’s color, with component numbers capping at 255. For example a Transform Amount of 1.5 will convert RGB 50 100 200 to RGB 75 150 255. A negative Transform Amount will do the same but with the differences of each component from 255. For example -0.5 will convert RGB 245 128 0 to RGB 250 192 128.

Limit Brightness To Value: When selected, this will prevent the brightness of each pixel from being higher or lower than a limit, and will darken or brighten those pixels beyond the limit appropriately. The Transform Amount field if positive indicates the maximum allowed sum for the RGB values of a pixel, and ranges up to 765 (255 times three). If negative it indicates the minimum allowed sum for a pixel’s RGB values, e.g. an entry of -100 will prevent any pixel from being darker than or having an RGB sum less than 100.

Rotate All By Degree: When selected, all pixels in the bitmap will be rotated clockwise by the number of degrees specified in the Transform Amount field. Pixels rotated from off the bitmap will be black.

Twist Middle By Degree: When selected, this will rotate pixels at the center of the bitmap by the number of degrees specified, and gradually rotate concentric rings around the middle by a lesser amount until the edge of the bitmap is reached, which isn’t rotated at all.

Transform Amount: This means different things depending on which of the options above is selected.

Replace Color...: This dialog allows replacing all instances of one color in the color bitmap with another color.

From: This indicates the color to be replaced.

To: This indicates the color to replace all instances of the From color with.

In addition to replacing a color with another solid color, you can also replace that color with a pattern of colors. To do this, enter one of the special values below in the To field. These “colors” are usually a single special character whose shape resembles the type of pattern done. The specific colors to use in the pattern are defined by the rest of the fields in the dialog. The available patterns themselves are as follows:

O: The value “O” means to have rings of color starting from the center of the bitmap and ending in the corners of the bitmap.

X: The value “X” means to have spokes of color radiating from the center of the bitmap, starting at the right edge, and swinging in a circle around the bitmap clockwise to end at the right edge again.

*: The value “*” is like “X” except the colors will also be lightened the closer they are to the middle. Colors in the center of the bitmap will be lightened so they’re almost white, while colors in the corners of the bitmap will be darkened so they’re almost black.

|: The value “|” means to have rows of color arranged vertically starting at the top edge and ending at the bottom edge.

-: The value “-” means to have columns of color arranged horizontally starting at the left edge and ending at the right edge.

\: The value “\” means to have 45 degree diagonal lines of color starting at the upper left corner and ending at the lower right.

/: The value “/” means to have 45 degree diagonal lines of color starting at the lower left corner and ending at the upper right.

#: The value “#” is like “O” except it has square rings instead of circular rings starting from the center of the bitmap.

+: The value “+” is like “O” except it has diamond shaped rings instead of circular rings starting from the center of the bitmap.

@: The value “@” will make a spiral pattern, similar to “X” except the spokes of color spiral instead of shoot directly outward from the center of the bitmap. The spiral will have a radius indicated by the distance of the dot from the center. If the dot is above the center, colors will spiral out counterclockwise, otherwise they will spiral clockwise.

o: The value “o” is like “O” except the rings of color start from the location of the dot and end in the farthest corner of the bitmap from the dot.

8: The value “8” is like “o” except rings of color start from both the dot and second dot, each pixel taking its color based on which dot is closer to it.

x: The value “x” is like “X” except the spokes of color radiate from the location of the dot.

?: The value “?” means to make each pixel changed become a random color within the type of blend done, e.g. when doing a rainbow blend each pixel will be a random color of the rainbow.

??: The value “??” means to make each pixel changed become a random color of any type. Unlike all the other patterns, the other fields in the dialog have no effect on the colors chosen here.

?????: The five characters “?????” will make each pixel changed become a random color somewhere between the colors in the Blend1 & Blend2 fields.

Swap Instead Of Replace: When this is set, the dialog will exchange instances of the colors in the From and To fields with each other, instead of just replacing instances of the To color with the From color. When set, the To field must be a solid color as opposed to one of the color patterns.

Rainbow Blend: This is a radio button in the Special To Pattern group. When selected, and when replacing a color with a pattern, the colors in that pattern will be a blend through the colors of the rainbow.

Straight Color Blend: This is a radio button in the Special To Pattern group. When selected, and when replacing a color with a pattern, the colors in that pattern will be a gradient starting with one color and ending with a second color.

Rainbow Start: This value only plays a role when a color is being replaced with a pattern. When Rainbow Blend is selected, this indicates the color of the rainbow to start the blend with. The value here can range from 0 to 360, where 0 is red, 120 is green, and so on through the rainbow. When Straight Color Blend is selected, this indicates where the start the blend from, where the value 0 corresponds to the color in Blend1 and 360 with Blend2.

Rainbow Distance: This value only plays a role when a color is being replaced with a pattern. When Rainbow Blend is selected, this indicates how much of the rainbow to blend through between the start and end of the pattern. The value 360 means to go forward through the entire rainbow once. Making the value -720 for example would mean to go backwards through the rainbow twice. When Straight Color Blend is selected, instead of the color gradient always going from the color in the Blend1 field to Blend2, it can go back and forth between them multiple times. For example, if Rainbow Start is 0 and Rainbow Distance is 720, the gradient will go from Blend1 to Blend2 then back to Blend1.

Blend1: This value only plays a role when Straight Color Blend is selected. This indicates the color to start blending from at the start of the pattern.

Blend2: This value only plays a role when Straight Color Blend is selected. This indicates the color to end blending with at the end of the pattern.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - MAZE MENU

Maze Menu: This is similar to the Bitmap menu but contains commands that operate on the main bitmap that are associated with Mazes. This includes Maze generation commands that use what’s already on the screen as a basis of what they do.

Maze Size...: This dialog is like the Size dialog in that it allows changing the size of the active bitmap. Here however you specify the size in terms of the number of Maze passages that fit within the bitmap, instead of the pixel size of the bitmap itself.

Horizontal & Vertical Size: These two values indicate the current size of the bitmap in passages. The size of a bitmap in passages is one less than half the size in pixels. The size of a bitmap in pixels is two more than twice the size in passages. Basically each passage requires two pixels: one for the passage itself, and one for the wall next to it. Finally there’s one more pixel for the wall on the other size of the last passage, and then one more after that to make the bitmap size be even. The numbers here can be negative, where this will resize the Maze down by that many passages, e.g. -5 will subtract five passages or ten pixels from the Maze’s size.

Clear Maze After Sizing: When this is set, after the bitmap is resized, all pixels in it will be set to off. This corresponds to the Clear Bitmap After Sizing checkbox in the Size dialog.

3D Maze: This section contains the passage size or dimensions of the 3D Maze bitmap within the active bitmap. These fields are used when creating 3D Mazes, 4D Mazes, and Planair Mazes, and should be set to the desired values before creating such Mazes.

X: This contains the number of horizontal passages within each level or section in a 3D or 4D or Planair Maze. The number of horizontal pixels will be two more than twice this number. Loading a 3D bitmap with the 3D Bitmap Open command will set this value.

Y: This contains the number of vertical passages within each level or section in a 3D or 4D or Planair Maze. The number of vertical pixels will be two more than twice this number. Loading a 3D bitmap with the 3D Bitmap Open command will set this value.

Z: This contains the number of 3D levels in a 3D or 4D Maze. This is the number of actual passage levels, which doesn’t include sections between passage levels indicating the passage connections between the levels. The number of actual bitmap sections will be one less than twice this number. Loading a 3D bitmap with the 3D Bitmap Open command will set this value. For Planair Mazes this field is ignored.

W: For 3D and Planair Mazes this is half the number of sections per row. This allows the sections to be arranged in a grid instead of having to be in a single line. This affects the arrangement of sections when loading a 3D bitmap as well as when creating a 3D or Planair Maze. For 4D Mazes this contains the number of levels along the 4th axis or through the 4th dimension. This is the number of 4D passage levels, where the actual bitmap sections will be one less then twice this number. 4D Mazes are arranged as a 2D grid of 2D sections or levels.

Zoom Bias...: This dialog is like the Zoom dialog in that it zooms the active bitmap by a certain factor, however this zooms even and odd rows and columns by different amounts. This allows making a Maze bitmap where the passages are a different thickness than the walls. Usually you’ll want to make walls thinner than passages, to say use less ink when printing or to make the Maze look more like one drawn with a pen.

Even Horizontal Bias & Even Vertical Bias: Set these values to the horizontal and vertical factors to zoom even numbered pixels i.e. walls by.

Odd Horizontal Bias & Odd Vertical Bias: Set these values to the horizontal and vertical factors to zoom odd numbered pixels i.e. passages by.

Add: This submenu has commands to add things to the Maze.

Add Entrance: This adds one entrance to the Maze. This means searching for and turning off a random on pixel in the top row of the bitmap. Daedalus usually considers the top of a Maze to be the start. This will only create entrances at positions that connect with existing interior passages. If the top row doesn’t contain a wall, this will move to the next row down and keep trying until it’s able to turn off a pixel. If Entrance Positioning in Maze Settings is set to Corners, this will try to select a location nearest the upper left corner for the entrance. If Entrance Positioning is set to Middle, this will try to select a location nearest the middle of the top edge for the entrance.

Add Exit: This is like Add Entrance but adds one exit to the Maze. This means turning off a pixel in either the bottom or second from bottom row of the bitmap. Daedalus usually considers the bottom of a Maze to be the end. If the bottom row doesn’t contain a wall, this will move to the next row above and keep trying until it’s able to turn off a pixel. If Entrance Positioning in Maze Settings is set to Corners, this will try to select a location nearest the bottom right corner for the exit. If Entrance Positioning is set to Middle, this will try to select a location nearest the middle of the bottom edge for the exit.

Add Passage: This adds a passage to the Maze, by randomly turning off one wall pixel. This won’t add any entrances, but will always affect the interior of the Maze. Each time this is run, it will add a passage loop or detached wall to the Maze, or open up an inaccessible section. This does nothing if no valid wall segments can be found.

Add Wall: This adds a wall segment to the Maze, by randomly turning on one passage pixel. This won’t seal off any entrances, but will always affect the interior of the Maze. Each time this is run, it will create an inaccessible section within the Maze, or connect a detached wall i.e. remove a passage loop.

Remove: This submenu has commands to remove all instances of something from the Maze.

Crack Isolations: This removes all inaccessible or isolated sections within the Maze, by adding passages to connect them with the rest of the Maze. For each isolated section, a passage will be randomly added to connect it with whatever surrounds it. This won’t touch solid block areas without passages that aren’t part of the Maze.

Connect Detachments: This removes all passage loops or detached walls within the Maze, by adding walls to connect them with the rest of the Maze. For each detached wall, a wall segment will be randomly added to connect it with whatever surrounds it. This won’t touch rooms or parts of the bitmap not covered by Maze passages.

Crack Dead Ends: This removes all dead ends from the Maze, turning it into a Braid Maze, by randomly removing a wall segment at the end of each dead end, so the dead end passage continues. Note this will cause many loops or detached walls to be added to the Maze. When picking which wall at the end of a dead end to remove, this will avoid creating a “pole” or single pixel wall segment in the Maze if possible.

Seal Entrances: This removes all entrances from the Maze, by adding wall segments to seal them off. An entrance is considered to be any passage pixel that has part of the Maze on one side of it, and an open space (or the edge of the bitmap) on the other side.

Connect Poles: This removes all “poles” from the Maze, or single pixel wall segments surrounded by a small loop, by adding wall segments to connect them with the rest of the Maze. When adding walls, this will avoid creating dead ends with the new wall segment if possible.

Remove Poles: This is like Connect Poles, except here the poles are simply deleted leaving open spaces, as opposed to connected with adjacent walls.

Crack Cells: This removes all internal walls from the Maze, leaving just a bunch of poles. This leaves boundary walls around the edge of the Maze alone. This can be used to create a Braid Maze with an irregular boundary. Start with a filled in area, run Crack Cells to carve out the interior, then Connect Poles to start adding wall segments, and finally Braid Add Walls to finish the Maze.

Crack Blind Alley Cells: This edits the Maze such that all wall segments within the same blind alley have been removed. In other words, each blind alley hanging off the solution path will become a small or large open space surrounded by a wall, which makes the solution and false paths of the Maze more apparent. The temporary bitmap may optionally indicate the solution path: If the temporary bitmap exists, and is the same size as the main bitmap, and all off pixels in the temporary bitmap are also off in the main bitmap, and there’s at least one pixel on in the main bitmap that’s off in the temporary (in other words the set of off pixels in the temporary bitmap is a proper subset of the off pixels in the main bitmap) then all off pixels in the temporary bitmap will be considered the solution.

Fill Passages: This fills in all passages in the Maze, leaving a solid area or matte. This leaves rooms or parts of the bitmap not covered by the Maze alone.

Fill Open Cells: This removes all rooms or open spaces within the Maze. This won’t create any inaccessible areas, but will rather turn everything into one pixel wide passages by thickening the walls next to open spaces.

Remove Boundary: This removes all outer and inner boundary walls in the Maze, or walls with open space (as opposed to a passage) on one or both sides of them. Each time this command is run, the Maze will “melt” inward by another passage width, as if it were dissolving in acid.

This command will work on a pixel basis instead of a Maze cell basis, if run when the Solve Fillers Check Every Pixel flag in Maze Settings is on, in which any pixel not surrounded by on pixels on all sides will be turned off. In this scenario, the No Corner Hopping flag in the Dot Settings dialog determines whether pixels need to be set in just the four compass directions or in all eight directions. This scenario will also check the Edge Behavior setting in the Dot Settings dialog. When Edge Behavior is set to Stop At Edge, pixels outside the bitmap will be considered on instead of off. When Edge Behavior is set to Torus Wrapping, consideration of adjacent pixels will wrap around the edges of the bitmap.

Remove Tubes: This removes all passage tubes from the Maze, or horizontal or vertical passage segments with open space on both sides of the walls forming the passage. Note Remove Boundary removes everything this command does and then some.

Normalize: This submenu has commands to modify whatever’s in the bitmap to look more like a standard orthogonal Maze. In a standard orthogonal Maze, the following are true: (1) All pixels at even numbered coordinate pairs are on, which are where walls intersect. (2) All pixels at odd numbered coordinate pairs are off, which are where passages intersect. (3) All pixels in the rightmost column and bottom row are off.

Add Passages: This turns off all pixels at odd numbered coordinate pairs. This makes solid areas become single cell isolated sections.

Add Walls: This turns on all pixels at even numbered coordinate pairs. This makes open areas become fields of poles.

Erase Bottom Right: This erases or fills with off pixels the rightmost column and bottom row. If already clear, this does the opposite and sets or fills the area with on pixels.

Make Symmetric: This modifies the current Maze to be rotationally symmetric through its middle, where the bottom half will be the top half turned upside down, and the right half will be the left upside down. This is implemented by copying the top half to the bottom, then editing the Maze so it has no isolations or loops. If the most recent autorepeatable command run was creating a Braid Maze, the symmetric Maze will be edited so it has no dead ends instead of no loops. Note a perfect symmetric Maze will always have its solution going through the middle, so if the Maze has no middle passage (i.e. has an even number of horizontal and vertical passages) then the Maze can’t be fully symmetric if it’s made to be perfect. Hence a message displaying the number of asymmetries in the Maze is shown after running the command.

Expand Set: This zooms the bitmap by a factor or two, doubling its size. However unlike a normal zoom, here each set pixel will become a 3x3 instead of a 2x2 section in the new bitmap. This is useful to make a properly formed solid section or matte to create a Maze within. After running the command, every on pixel in the old bitmap will become a cell surrounded by walls in the new bitmap.

Room Thinned: This should only be run on a biased zoomed Maze where walls are one pixel thick and passages are three pixels. It will modify the Maze such that each cell looks like a small room, where passages to adjacent cells are narrow doorways and the room itself has a pole or set pixel in the middle. Running the command on an already roomified Maze will unroomify it back to its original condition. Roomified Mazes look interesting and also have the characteristic of seeming hard for the eye to follow, and hence can be harder to solve.

Tweak Endpoints: This slightly modifies certain passages in a Maze. The wall segment at each wall endpoint will be made to randomly point in a new direction. The solution and the path between any two points in the Maze will remain very similar to before.

Tweak Passages: This slightly modifies passages in a Maze that are next to solid areas. This will randomly turn some straight passage segments into U-turn sections and vice-versa, as well as toggle between types of corners. This is useful when defining the solution or other passages in a Maze by hand, before having the computer create the rest of the Maze. Without this you have to manually make the passages twisty to blend in with the rest of the Maze. With this you can just quickly draw the rough path you want the passages to take, which can include perfectly straight lines, and then do Tweak Passages one or more times to add random twists to the path.

Weave To 3D: This command should only be run with a Weave Maze in the bitmap. This will convert a Weave Maze to an equivalent 3D Maze. The 3D Maze will have two levels, where underpasses in the Weave Maze are represented by a drop down to and back up from the lower level. This can be used to convert a Weave Maze to a form where one can navigate the dot through it. If the Semitransparent Walls inside setting is set to anything but None, then the appropriate pixels in the extra bitmap will also be set, so the perspective inside view will show the walls adjacent to overpasses as semitransparent. That allows one to see the underpass passage from an overpass and vice-versa, like a real bridge.

Weave To Inside: This command should only be run with a Weave Maze in the bitmap. It will convert the Weave Maze into a scene readily explorable in the perspective inside view, automatically switching to that view and adjusting other settings appropriately. This is an improved version of the Weave To 3D command, since instead of implementing underpasses with pits that go underground, this creates overpasses with stairs that allow you to climb up and look out over the Maze. Stairs and bridges will be highlighted in the 3D Ceiling color, and handrails in the 3D Wall color.

Clarify Weave: The command should only be run with a Weave Maze in the bitmap. It will convert the Weave Maze into an image that looks better (which usually means making the passages thicker relative to walls), zooming the passages and walls appropriately. The zoom proportions are controlled by the Clarify Weave Bias settings in the Maze Settings dialog.

Clarify 3D: This command should only be run with a 3D Maze in the bitmap, where the dimensions of the 3D Maze are set in the Size dialogs. This replaces the 3D Maze with a new bitmap that represents the Maze in a way more easily viewed and followed by humans. Basically it removes all the block sections used to store passage connections between levels, and instead represents those passages with icons in the levels themselves. Within each cell can be pixels that look like staircases up or down, that indicate passages to adjacent levels. This is basically a graphical version of the output of the Save Text command for 3D Mazes, where within a level a “\” shape indicates a passage down to the next lower level, “/” a passage up to the next higher level, and “X” passages both up and down at that point.

When Show Color Bitmap is on, this will draw a colorized version of the clarification in the color bitmap. Stair icons indicating passages between levels are in one of four colors, where the colors will match up to make the clarified 3D Maze easier to navigate. For example if stairs from one level to another are red, the stairs from the other level back to the first will also be red.

Clarify 4D: This command should only be run with a 4D Maze in the bitmap, where the dimensions of the 4D Maze are set in the Size dialogs. This replaces the 4D Maze with a new bitmap that represents the Maze in a way more easily viewed and followed by humans. Basically it removes all the block sections used to store passage connections between levels, and instead represents those passages with icons in the levels themselves. Within each cell can be pixels that look like doors with a doorknob, that indicate passages to different sections. Doors at the top or bottom of a cell (i.e. in the ceiling or floor) indicate passages to the same cell a level above or below the current one (i.e. through the 3rd dimension). Doors at the left or right of a cell indicate passages to the same cell a section to the left or right of the current one (i.e. through the 4th dimension).

When Show Color Bitmap is on, this will draw a colorized version of the clarification in the color bitmap. Doorways leading through the 3rd and 4th dimensions are colored red, green, blue, or yellow. That makes one color for each possible doorway leading away from a cell. Note the colors for doorways will match up, making the colorized clarified 4D Maze easier to navigate. For example if a doorway from one cell to another is green, the doorway from the destination cell back to the original will also be green.

Count Possible: This prints how many possible different perfect Mazes there are of a given rectangular size. The size is taken from the current passage dimensions of the bitmap. This ignores entrances and just considers internal passages, and also counts rotations and reflections as different Mazes. For example, for a 2x2 passage Maze there are four possibilities (the wall segment ending in the middle may be attached to any of the four outer walls). The number of possible Mazes rises very rapidly as its size increases. It’s on the order of four raised to the power of the number of cells in the Maze, where there are for example over 100,000 4x4 Mazes. The number of possible perfect Mazes is basically the number of possible minimal spanning trees over a graph of vertices in a grid, where Daedalus uses eigenvalues to mathematically compute the number.

Analyze Passages: This analyzes the passages of the Maze in the bitmap, and prints counts and percentage information. It prints information about the types of cells, the lengths of passages, and the lengths of dead ends.

For cells this prints: (1) The number of isolated cells, i.e. holes with walls on all sides with no passages leading from it. (2) The number of dead ends, i.e. points where there is only one passage leading from it. This is broken down into the number of blocks where the passage away from it leads up, left, down, and right. (3) The number of straightaway cells. This is broken down into the number of horizontal and vertical straightaways. (4) The number of turnings or corner cells. This is broken down into the number of corners of upper left, lower left, lower right, and upper right varieties. (5) The number of junctions, i.e. points where there are three passages leading from it. This is broken down into the number of junctions where the side passage leads up, left, down, and right. (6) The number of crossroads, i.e. points where there are four passages leading from it. (7) Finally the total number of cells in the bitmap is printed, along with the total number of passage cells, i.e. points where there are two passages leading from it (which is the sum of the straightaways and turnings above).

For passage lengths this prints the length of the longest horizontal passage and the longest vertical passage, measured in cells followed by in pixels in parentheses. For dead end lengths this prints the number of dead ends there are of each cell length, i.e. how many cells the dead end passage goes through before terminating.

This command will analyze the current 3D Maze when the Bitmap Is 3D setting is on. It will display the number of types of each cell (in which each cell has 0-6 passages leading from it) along with the number of dead ends of each cell length.

Analyze Walls: This is basically the inverse of Analyze Passages, where this analyzes the walls of the Maze in the bitmap, and prints counts and percentage information. It prints information about the types of wall intersection points, and the lengths of walls.

For wall intersection points this prints: (1) The number of poles, i.e. single pixel wall segments surrounded by a small passage loop. (2) The number of wall endpoints, i.e. points where there is only one wall leading from it. This is broken down into the number of endpoints where the segment away from it leads up, left, down, and right. (3) The number of straight wall pieces. This is broken down into the number of horizontal and vertical straight walls. (4) The number of corner wall pieces. This is broken down into the number of corners of upper left, lower left, lower right, and upper right varieties. (5) The number of T-sections, i.e. points where there are three walls leading from it. This is broken down into the number of T-sections where the side wall leads up, left, down, and right. (6) The number of crosspieces, i.e. points where there are four walls leading from it. (7) Finally the total number of wall intersection points in the bitmap is printed, along with the total number of wall points, i.e. points where there are two wall segments leading from it (which is the sum of the straight walls and corners above).

For wall lengths this prints the number of horizontal and vertical wall segments composing the Maze. For example, if one wanted to reproduce a Maze using tarps, this would indicate the number of tarp panels needed. This also prints the length of the longest horizontal and vertical walls within the Maze, measured in cells followed by in pixels in parentheses. This ignores outer boundary walls when determining the longest.

Maze Settings...: This dialog controls settings related to various Maze solving and utility commands. Note all settings dealing with particular Maze creation styles are in the Create Settings dialog.

Create Mazes Polished: This controls the same setting as the Polished Mazes command on the Create menu, however unlike the command, changing it here won’t affect any existing Maze in the bitmap or any other settings.

Apply Commands To Rectangle Section: When this is set, most Maze related commands, including creation and solving commands, will be applied to the rectangle whose opposite corners are defined by the dot and second dot. Normally commands are applied to the entire bitmap. For example, this can be used to fill in all dead ends in just a section of a Maze. Note some commands will automatically align the rectangle they use here to certain rows and columns, e.g. most Maze creation commands will always draw walls on even numbered pixels.

Teleport To Entrance On Maze Creation: This flag when set will automatically move the dot to the entrance of any Maze or Labyrinth the program creates. This is useful when making a Maze to solve yourself within the program by navigating the dot through it.

Connect Poles Never Adds Dead Ends: This affects the Connect Poles command, which tries not to create a new dead end when connecting a pole to a neighboring wall. When this is set, if in all cases connecting a pole would result in a dead end, Connect Poles will leave it as a pole. When unset, Connect Poles will go ahead and make a dead end if it has to.

Solve Fillers Check Every Pixel: This affects the Fill Dead Ends, Fill Cul-De-Sacs, Fill Blind Alleys, Fill Single Dead Ends, and Mark Dead Ends commands. Normally these commands assume a standard orthogonal Maze, where dead ends can only start at odd numbered rows and columns. When this is set, the commands will check every pixel and make no assumptions about the layout of the Maze. This makes the commands run slightly slower, but they will be able to handle non-standard Mazes, e.g. this needs to be set if you want to fill dead ends of Mazes created with the Cavern command.

Solve Fillers Consider Dots As Exits: This affects the Fill Dead Ends, Fill Cul-De-Sacs, Fill Blind Alleys, Fill Single Dead Ends, Mark Dead Ends, and Mark Cul-De-Sacs commands. Normally these commands fill in every dead end or blind alley, however in some cases you may not want everything the command considers a dead end or blind alley filled, e.g. it may indicate an entrance or exit. When this is set, the location of the dot and second dot will act as solutions. If a dot is at the end of a dead end, that dead end won’t get filled. If a dot is along the loop at the end of a cul-de-sac, that cul-de-sac won’t get filled. If a dot is anywhere within a blind alley, that blind alley won’t get filled.

Find A Path Finds Random Path: This affects the Find A Path solving command. Normally that command always displays the same solution for any particular Maze. When this is set, that command will instead find a random solution.

Show Count Of Shortest Solutions: This affects the Find Shortest Paths command. Normally that command displays how long each of the solutions are. When this is set, that command will instead display the total number of shortest solutions.

Tweak Passages Chances: The number here affects the Tweak Passages command, and indicates how often sections should be modified. The first digit indicates how often U-turn sections should be turned into straight sections, the second digit indicates how often corners should be toggled, and the third digit indicates how often straight sections should be turned into U-turns. For example, a 3 in the 10’s place means to give each corner a 1 in 3 chance of being toggled. A zero digit means to never modify that section type.

Total Mazes Created: This field contains the number of Mazes that have been created since the program was started. This works well with the Autorepeat command, where you can start making a bunch of Mazes, then later see how many were made. You can also change this value if you want, e.g. reset it to zero.

Clarify Weave Passage Bias: This value determines how many pixels wide passages will be in Mazes that have had the Clarify Weave command run on them.

Clarify Weave Wall Bias: This value determines how many pixels wide walls will be in Mazes that have had the Clarify Weave command run on them.

Clarify Weave Railing Bias: This value determines how many pixels wide railings or separator walls next to overpass passages will be in Mazes that have had the Clarify Weave command run on them. Normally this value should be less than one half of the Wall Bias setting, in order to allow some of an underpass passage to still be visible between two parallel overpasses. If this value is too large (or zero) then overpasses and underpasses will instead be indicated with a block of on pixels in the middle of the intersection.

Entrance Positioning: This section of radio buttons controls where entrances and exits in created Mazes are placed. For most Daedalus Mazes the entrance is always on the top edge and the exit on the bottom, where this setting indicates where along those edges the openings should be.

Corners: This puts the entrance in the upper left corner and the exit in the lower right.

Middle: This centers the entrance and exit in the middle of the top and bottom edges.

Balanced Random: This places the entrance randomly, with the exit being put the same distance from the right edge that the entrance is from the left.

True Random: This places both the entrance and exit randomly.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - CREATE MENU

Create Menu: This contains all the ways of creating different types of Mazes and Labyrinths. Most of these commands will draw a 100% computer generated Maze within the bounds of the main bitmap.

Perfect: This creates a standard perfect Maze, where “perfect” means the Maze has no passage loops or detached walls, and no inaccessible sections. The Maze will have exactly one solution, and from each point in the Maze there will be exactly one path to any other point.

Braid: This creates a braid Maze, where “braid” means the Maze has no dead ends in it. This means the passages coil around and run back into each other making you go in circles instead of bumping into dead ends. Hence expect there to be many loops and detached walls, and multiple solutions. The Mazes created with this command are generally easier to solve than the Perfect command.

If Use Eller’s Algorithm in File Settings is set, and Create With River in Create Settings is on, then braid Mazes will be created with a variation of Eller’s algorithm. This alternate braid Maze algorithm, when compared to the standard algorithm, will result in braid Mazes with a slightly higher loops density, will have a slight diagonal bias from upper left to lower right in the solution path, and will occasionally generate wall poles in the upper corners, however it’s also six times faster.

If Use Eller’s Algorithm in File Settings is set, and Create With River in Create Settings is off, then braid Mazes will be created using a template similar to the pattern produced by the Tilt command. In other words, every other wall pole will be the center of a two segment vertical or horizontal wall, which produces a bunch of unicursal passages which either start and end on the edges or are isolated passage loops within the Maze. The result will then be enclosed by the boundary wall and have the Crack Isolation command internally run, to create a valid braid Maze. If Tilt Lines Make No Diamonds in Create Settings is on, then (like the Tilt command) the Maze will have no wall poles.This alternative braid Maze algorithm, when compared to the standard algorithm, will tend to result in more difficult braid Mazes with fewer solutions, yet with a more convoluted solution path.

Unicursal: This creates a random unicursal Maze, where “unicursal” means the Maze has no junctions, and hence has just a single long snake-like passage that coils throughout the extent of the Maze. Unicursal Mazes with an odd number of horizontal and vertical passages always go from the upper left corner to the lower right corner. Unicursal Mazes with an even number of horizontal and vertical passages start and end at the same spot on the top row. Mazes with an even number of horizontal passages and an odd number of vertical go from upper left to upper right. Mazes with an odd number of horizontal passages and an even number of vertical go from upper left to lower left. If the Create With River checkbox in the Create Settings dialog is set, the path here will be more twisty. See the Labyrinth submenu for more ways of creating unicursal Mazes.

Unicursal Mazes are normally generated by bisecting the passages of a smaller Maze created with the Hunt and Kill algorithm. If Use Eller’s Algorithm in File Settings is on, and the Maze has odd horizontal and vertical cell dimensions, then the unicursal Maze will instead be based on the smaller Maze created with the Binary Tree algorithm. This runs much faster due to the quick speed of the Binary Tree algorithm.

More Perfect: This submenu contains additional ways to create perfect Mazes. Each command creates a Maze using a different algorithm, resulting in a Maze with a different texture.

Recursive Backtrack: This algorithm creates the Maze by carving passages, where it always adds onto the most recently created passage whenever possible, and only “backs up” to create other sections when it’s forced to. This results in Mazes with about as high a “river” factor as possible, with fewer but longer dead ends, and usually a very long and twisty solution. This command is fast, although Prim’s Algorithm is slightly faster.

Prim's Algorithm: This algorithm creates the Maze by carving passages, where it attaches new passage segments onto the created portion of the Maze at random points, and will rarely stay with any single passage for any length of time. This results in Mazes with about as low a “river” factor as possible, with many short dead ends, and the solution is usually pretty direct too. This command is faster than any of the others except Eller’s algorithm.

True Prim’s Algorithm: This is a full implementation of Prim’s algorithm involving random edge weights. It will produce a minimum spanning tree like Kruskal’s algorithm, and therefore the same random number seed will produce identical Mazes when running these two commands. If Create With Wall Adding in Create Settings is on, then the Maze will be created by adding walls instead of carving passages. If Value Is Random Chance in Create Settings is on, then all edge weights will be the same instead of uniquely different, resulting in a Maze that’s generated faster, however with a lower “river” factor similar to the Prim’s Algorithm command.

Kruskal's Algorithm: This algorithm creates the Maze by carving passages, however it doesn’t “grow” the Maze like a tree, but rather carves passage segments all over the Maze at random, while still resulting in a perfect Maze when done. This results in Mazes with a low “river” factor, but not as low as Prim’s algorithm. This command runs slightly slower than Recursive Backtrack.

Aldous-Broder: This algorithm creates Mazes with the special property that all possible Mazes of a given size are generated in equal probability. It carves passages by moving the carving point around totally randomly, relying on chance to finish the Maze, hence this is roughly seven times slower than most of the other creation commands. These Mazes have a low “river” factor, only slightly higher than Kruskal’s algorithm.

Wilson's Algorithm: This algorithm is an improved version of Aldous-Broder above, in that this also creates all Mazes with equal probability (so Mazes created here are indistinguishable from those created with Aldous-Broder) however this runs roughly five times faster, and only twice as slow as most of the other creation commands. This carves passages at random too, but jumps to an unfinished location each time the random walk hits a previously carved section, so it quickly attaches passages to the Maze until all parts have been created.

Eller's Algorithm: This algorithm creates Mazes by focusing on one row at a time, keeping track of which paths connect so as to know where to carve and not carve passages, and does so extremely quickly, faster than any other creation command. These Mazes have a lowish “river” factor, slightly higher than the Aldous-Broder algorithm.

If Create With Wall Adding in Create Settings set, the Maze will be created in the same method except by adding walls instead of carving passages. This will result in an “elitist” Maze with a short direct solution but still difficult to solve, since there will be many long dead ends streaming down from the entrance edge, where it won’t be obvious which passage to take.

Growing Tree: This algorithm creates a Maze by continually adding onto what has already been generated. The behavior of determining what section to add onto next is controlled by the fields in the Growing Tree section of the Create Settings dialog. A Tree Maze can have many dead ends or few dead ends, its solution can be direct or windy, and it can be made by carving passages or adding walls.

Growing Forest: This algorithm is basically multiple instances of the Growing Tree algorithm running at the same time. In the Create Settings dialog, the Forest Initial field indicates the number of instances to begin with: If positive the field indicates the exact number of instances, and if negative the field indicates that one in X cells should start out as instances. The Forest Addition field indicates the number of instances to add each time a cell is added to the Maze: If positive the field indicates the exact number of instances to add, and if negative indicates that one instance should be added every X cells. If Forest Initial is one and Forest Addition is zero, then this behaves like the Growing Tree algorithm.

Recursive Division: The algorithm creates a Maze by adding walls, where the area within the Maze is divided by a randomly positioned horizontal or vertical wall with a passage opening within it. Each subarea is then recursively divided with more walls until all areas are filled.

The Random Settings dialog determines whether each area is divided horizontally or vertically. If the Random Run field is 0, then divisions are based on the area’s proportions, where short and wide areas are more likely to be divided vertically and vice versa. Such division is adjusted by the Random Bias field, where positive biases increase the chance of horizontal divisions and negative biases vertical divisions. If the Random Run field is non-zero, then divisions are purely based on the Random Bias field, where that field will be the percentage that each division will be horizontal, ranging from -50 (all vertical) to 0 (equal chances) to 50 (all horizontal).

This will create a 3D Maze when the Bitmap / Bitmap Is 3D command is set. A 3D recursive division Maze is created with plane walls (across the X, Y, or Z axis) dividing the Maze into two halves, with one passage opening in it, and then recursively repeating the process on each half. As with normal 3D Mazes, increasing the Random Bias field in Random Settings will decrease the probability of level changes in the Maze.

Binary Tree: The algorithm creates Mazes with the special property that each cell has a passage that leads either up or left, but never both or neither. This creates a biased texture, where one can always easily travel diagonally up and to the left without hitting barriers or having to make choices. Moving down and to the right is when the Maze becomes a challenge, so the Maze is hard to solve but easy to solve backwards. The Maze forms a binary tree, with the upper left corner the root, where each node or cell has one or two children, and one unique parent which is the cell above or to the left of it.

The Random Bias field in the Random Settings dialog will affect the Maze, and be the percentage that each cell will connect up or to the left, ranging from -50 (all vertical) to 0 (equal chances) to 50 (all horizontal). A value over 50 will cause passages to seem to radiate from the root, fading from horizontal near the top to equal along the main diagonal to vertical near the left. A value under -50 will cause passages to radiate from the bottom right corner, which gives an equal probability for each opening along the long top and left edge passages to be the one to lead to the bottom right corner.

The Random Run field in Random Settings will also affect the Maze, where the value acts as a percentage for whether each cell row will be flipped horizontally. (Rows in Binary Tree Mazes can be flipped and still form valid Mazes.) A value of 0 doesn’t affect the Maze, a value of 100 flips the entire Maze, while a balanced value of 50 results in something very similar to a Sidewinder Maze where only the top edge consists of a long passage.

This command will create 3D binary tree Mazes when the Bitmap Is 3D setting is on. These Mazes have the property that each cell has exactly one passage that leads either north, west, or up. One can always easily travel diagonally to the upper northwest corner without hitting barriers or having to make choices. Moving to the lower southeast corner is when the Maze becomes a challenge. The Maze forms a ternary tree, with the upper northwest corner the root, where each node or cell has one to three children, and one unique parent which is the cell to the north, west, or above it.

Sidewinder: This algorithm creates a Maze with the property that every horizontal passage has exactly one passage leading up from it, resulting in a Maze with no backtracking passages where the solution path just snakes back and forth from entrance to exit. The Maze is just as hard to solve forwards, however it’s easy to solve backwards since there’s always exactly one way to get to the previous row.

If the Create With Wall Adding flag in the Maze Settings dialog is set, this command will create the Maze by adding walls. The Random Bias field in the Random Settings dialog will affect the Maze, and be the percentage of horizontal vs. vertical passages, ranging from -50 (all vertical) to 0 (equal chance) to 50 (all horizontal).

If the Bitmap Is 3D command is checked, a 3D version of Sidewinder Mazes will be generated. A 3D sidewinder Maze consists of horizontal passages, each of which has a single point allowing access to the horizontal passage either to the north or above.

Hunt And Kill: This algorithm creates the Maze by carving passages, where it behaves similar to Recursive Backtrack. The difference is when it can’t add onto the current passage, it will enter “hunting” mode and search over the Maze until an unmade section is found next to an already carved passage. By default this results in Mazes with a high “river” factor, but not as high as Recursive Backtrack. If Create With River in the Create Settings dialog is unset, the Maze will instead have a low “river” factor, about the same as Kruskal’s Algorithm. This command runs slightly slower than Kruskal’s Algorithm. Note the Perfect command uses this algorithm. The command is included on this submenu as well so it can be compared alongside the others.

Random Perfect: This creates a Maze in a random algorithm, picking at random one of the commands on the More Perfect submenu to run. This will pick among nine possible algorithms. It won’t ever use the Aldous-Broder algorithm because it’s slower and Wilson’s algorithm produces Mazes of the exact same texture, and it won’t ever use the Binary Tree, Sidewinder, or Recursive Division algorithms since their Mazes are too biased.

Pattern: This submenu contains ways to create Mazes in certain specialized patterns. All the Mazes here are perfect.

Spiral: This creates a perfect Maze, however the Maze will be composed of interlocking spirals. This looks cool and makes the Maze have recognizable landmarks, instead of just being filled with a flat texture as seen with the Perfect command.

Diagonal: This creates a perfect Maze, however the Maze will have a “diagonal bias”. This is similar to the horizontal or vertical bias that can be specified in the Random Settings dialog, however here the Maze will have a special texture where many of the passages will look like stairs going diagonally from the lower left to upper right.

Segment: This creates a standard perfect Maze, however different sections of the Maze can have different textures. You can set specific rectangles of pixels to have certain textures, as well as have textures fade from one quality to another within a rectangle. See the Segment field in the Create Settings dialog for how to define what sections of the Maze have what textures.

Nested Fractal: This creates a fractal Maze, which is composed of smaller Mazes connected together. Each cell of an outer Maze contains an inner Maze nested inside of it, where this Maze nesting process can be repeated multiple times. See the Fractal group box in the Create Settings dialog for fields to set the size of a fractal Maze.

This will generate a 3D nested fractal Maze when the Bitmap Is 3D setting is on. A 3D nested fractal Maze is a 3D cube Maze, with smaller cube Mazes within each cell. The Fractal X field in the Create Settings dialog determines the X and Y cell dimensions of the cubes at each nesting level, and the Fractal Y field determines the Z cell dimension.

Hilbert Curve: This creates a fractal unicursal Labyrinth pattern called a Hilbert curve, consisting of a U-turn passage composed of four other U-turn patterns linked end to end. The size or fractal depth of the Labyrinth is taken from the Nesting Level field in the Create Settings dialog. If Bitmap Is 3D is set, then the Hilbert curve will be 3D instead of just 2D, and will consist of eight linked U-turn patterns.

3D: This submenu contains ways to create various types of Mazes which don’t fit on a flat 2D plane. All the Mazes here are perfect.

Weave: This creates a Maze where the passages can overlap each other. This is basically still a single level 2D Maze, but it has 3D components, so it can perhaps be considered a 2.5D Maze. The passages here are one pixel thick, however walls are three pixels thick. This gives room to make it clear when a passage is a dead end and when a passage goes underneath another. For further clarity, when a passage does go under another, it will always continue on the opposite side, where the passage will never change direction or terminate in a dead end while under the other passage. The Mazes created here will be “perfect” and have a single solution. Note Weave Mazes can be harder to solve than they appear.

3D: This creates a true three dimensional Maze with multiple levels, where there can be passages up and down in addition to the four compass directions. The size of the 3D Maze to create is specified in the Size or Maze Size dialogs, where the bitmap will be resized to fit those dimensions, instead of the Maze being created within the current size of the bitmap. Daedalus represents a 3D Maze as a list of levels or sections, where there are sections between each 3D level to indicate the up and down passages going between levels. When looking at a level in a 3D Maze, you need to look at the sections above and below it to see whether there are passages up or down from a cell. Therefore you may want to use the View Inside, Clarify 3D, or Save Text commands to get a more easily understood view of the Maze. The 3D Maze will be “perfect” and have a single solution. Note 3D Mazes are extremely difficult to solve.

4D: This creates a four dimensional Maze! A 4D Maze is like a 3D Maze, except there can be passages through the 4th dimension in addition to all the 3D directions. A cell in a 4D Maze can have passages in eight directions: The four compass directions, up, down, and “portals” to what can be considered the past and future. Daedalus represents a 4D Maze as a 2D array of levels or sections, where there are up to four sections surrounding each 4D level to indicate the passages going between levels through the third and fourth dimensions. You may want to use the Clarify 4D command on the Maze menu to create a more easily understood view of the Maze. Expect a 4D Maze to be even harder to follow than a 3D Maze.

Planair: This allows creating Mazes with unusual topology, which means connecting the edges of the Maze in interesting fashions. For example this can be used to create a Maze on the surface of a cube, or a Maze on the surface of a Moebius strip. Until you specify otherwise, the default Maze created with this command is a Maze equivalent to being on a torus with the left and right sides wrapping around to each other and the top and bottom wrapping. These Mazes are represented as a list of one or more rectangular Maze sections, similar to the way a 3D Maze is represented. The size of each section is taken from the 3D dimensions in the Size or Maze Size dialogs. The Planair field in the Maze Settings dialog defines how many sections there are, and more importantly how the edges match up, i.e. where a passage continues when it goes off the edge of one of the sections. The created Maze won’t have an official entrance or exit, where it’s up to you to define one, however it will have a “perfect” quality (as long as you don’t define any one way edges) where there will be exactly one path between any two points in the Maze.

Hyper: This creates a Hypermaze, or a Maze where the solving object is a line instead of just a point. In every other Maze you move a point through whatever dimension environment, where the path behind you forms an irregular line. In a Hypermaze you move a line through a 3D environment, where your path forms a surface! The Hypermaze is a 3D object, with solid top and bottom faces and what looks like a tangle of vines between them, where your goal is to move a line segment through the Hypermaze object, from one side to the other, like moving a piece of dental floss between two teeth. Hypermazes are harder to solve than standard 3D Mazes of the same size, since you need to be aware of and work with all points along the line segment. Use the Fill Hyper Dead Ends command on the Solve menu to solve a Hypermaze and show its solution surface. As far as I know Daedalus is the first and only program that can create Hypermazes.

Crack: This creates a Maze not on any consistent grid, but rather that has walls and passages at random angles. This uses a wall adding algorithm and results in a “perfect” Maze. Random one pixel wide walls will be added onto what’s already present, where initially long lines going across the Maze will be generated, followed by other proportionally smaller lines between them. The number of walls is only limited by the bitmap’s resolution, making the Maze look like the surface of a leaf, so this is really another type of fractal Maze.

Cavern: This creates a Maze that’s a mixture between a standard orthogonal Maze and a Crack Maze. The Maze is not on any consistent grid, however the walls and passages are still orthogonal, where each passage or wall segment is a single pixel instead of two pixels. This Maze is created with the Growing Tree algorithm, where all the fields in the Growing Tree section of the Create Settings dialog apply here too. When the Maze is passage carved, passages will always be one pixel thick while walls can be one or two pixels thick. When the Maze is wall added, walls will be one pixel thick while passages can be one or two pixels thick.

Arrow: This creates a Maze where passages can only be traversed in one direction. The Maze is composed of a bunch of small arrows, where you may only travel over an arrow in the direction it’s pointing. These Mazes are likely to have “traps”, which are cells or areas where all the arrows are pointing toward it, meaning you can’t ever leave. The Mazes created by this command will always have a single solution, although there will likely be a number of ways to go from a later point on the solution path back to an earlier point on it.

If the color bitmap is active, the solution to the generated arrow Maze will be placed in the color bitmap. The solution will be a copy of the Arrow Maze in color, with arrows in different colors indicating the solution. Red arrows mark the single solution path. Green arrows are false paths that can be recovered from, always going from somewhere on the solution path to somewhere earlier on it. Blue arrows are false paths that can’t be recovered from, always going from somewhere on the solution path into the void from which it’s never possible to get back to the solution. White arrows are paths within the void from which it’s never possible to reach the solution, where every white arrow can be followed backwards on a unique path of white arrows to reach a blue arrow, which ensures every cell within the Arrow Maze is reachable by some path. Gray arrows are the remaining paths within the void, where every gray arrow has at least one white or blue arrow on both ends of it.

Tilt: This creates a design that isn’t a real Maze, but is still an interesting pattern. This creates a grid of diagonal line segments, which randomly face one way or the other. The result is a bunch of unicursal passages, which either start and end on the edges, or are isolated passage loops within the pattern.

Recursive Fractal: Daedalus can create Mazes that are truly infinite sized! This command will generate an infinite recursive fractal Maze, which is a Maze that contains copies of itself, hence having an infinite number of passages in a finite area. (Since the copies contain copies themselves at deeper levels, you can enter copies forever.) The Maze looks like a microchip, with pins around the outside, and one or more numbered smaller chips in the middle. Your goal is find your way from the “minus” chip to the “plus” chip on the top level, following wires which sometimes weave under each other. When you enter one of the nested chips, jump to the corresponding pin on the outer edge. When you leave via one of the outer edge pins, jump to the corresponding pin on the numbered chip through which you entered that level. Your location in the Maze is defined by where you are in the current level, combined with the stack of levels above you. Note the only dead ends in the Maze are at the outer pins, either on the outermost level, or when leaving a level when a numbered chip doesn’t have a wire connecting to that pin. Recursive fractal Mazes and this representation of them were invented by Mark J. P. Wolf, where examples can be seen in his book “100 Enigmatic Puzzles”.

Regardless of whether the color bitmap is being shown, a colored version of the Maze with colored wires and chips will also be placed in the color bitmap, using a rainbow or other blend of colors as defined in the Replace Color dialog. The number of horizontal and vertical pins on each chip is defined by the X and Y fields in the Fractal section of the Create Settings dialog. The number of chips is defined by the Nesting Level in the dialog, and may range from 1 to 7.

Several settings will affect the recursive fractal Maze. If the Allow Isolations In Fractal checkbox in Create Settings is set, creation won’t insist that every part of the Maze be reachable from the start. Creation will always ensure there exists at least one solution, and normally ensures every passage is reachable on some level, i.e. that there are no isolated inaccessible passages. If Weave Crossings May Corner in Create Settings is set, passages may turn a corner when crossing each other, as opposed to having to continue straight at such points. If Tilt Lines Make No Diamonds is set, junctions between wires won’t be highlighted with thick blocks as they normally are. If Find A Path Finds Random Path in Maze Settings is set, passages will make turnings more, although will still take a shortest path between pins. The Random Bias field in the Random Settings dialog will affect the difficulty of the Maze. A negative value makes the Maze easier, by increasing the probability of passages connecting outer pins, which gives more opportunities to leave nested chips. A positive value makes the Maze harder, by decreasing the probability of passages connecting outer pins, giving fewer opportunities to leave nested chips. A value of -50 is easiest and is guaranteed to have a solution of depth 1, while a value of 50 is hardest and impossible to solve. Note not all sizes and settings of recursive fractal Mazes are possible. Daedalus will make a number of attempts to create the Maze equal to the Crack Pass Limit in Create Settings, and if it hasn’t succeeded by then, an error message will be shown.

Infinite: This submenu has commands which allow creating an infinitely long Maze! Such a Maze will have a fixed width, but its length can be as long as you want. This is implemented by keeping only a certain section of the Maze in memory at a time. Once a section is completely created, it can be saved to disk or just allowed to scroll off the top of the screen. See the Infinite Maze section of the File Settings dialog for settings related to creating infinite Mazes.

Start: This starts creating a new infinite Maze. The bitmap can be considered to cover two “sections” of infinite Maze, where the commands here finish one section at a time. Once the top section is completely created, this command will stop, leaving the bottom section half created.

Continue: This continues creating an infinite Maze begun with the Start command. This will discard the old top section that’s completely created, and “scroll” down so the old bottom section becomes the new top section, and a new uncreated section becomes the new bottom section. Then more of the Maze will be created, where once the new top section is finished, this command will stop, leaving the new bottom section half created again. Keep running this command to add more and more sections to the Maze. If an infinite Maze hasn’t been started yet, this will do the same as the Start command.

End: This finishes an infinite Maze begun with the commands above. This is like the Continue command, except instead of leaving the bottom section half created, it will finish creating both sections, and put an exit in the bottom edge. The smallest infinite Maze it’s possible to create will have three sections or be 1.5 times the size of the bitmap, which is created by running the Start command immediately followed by End. If an infinite Maze hasn’t been started yet, this will do the same as the Start command.

Restart: When creating an infinite Maze, you should not edit the bitmap between generations, because the program remembers information about the Maze such as how many more cells need to be done to finish the bottom section. This command does exactly the same thing as the Continue command, except it recalculates that information before proceeding to continue the Maze. If you’re making a very large infinite Maze and need to exit the program and continue it later, you should save a copy of the bitmap, then exit. Upon restarting the program, you should reload the bitmap, then run this command once to properly create the next section. You may then keep running the Continue command as normal. Note if Use Eller’s Algorithm is set, trying to restart the Maze will create loops, although the Maze will still be solvable.

Omega (Shapes): This submenu has commands to create Mazes on non-orthogonal grids. Except for the Zeta command, the number of passages in these Mazes is not determined by the size of the bitmap, but is rather contained in the Omega Dimensions field in the Create Settings dialog. The larger the bitmap, the wider the passages. If the bitmap is too small to contain the specified Maze, the bitmap will be automatically enlarged. All these Mazes will be “perfect” and have a single solution.

Gamma (Square): This creates a simple square Maze composed of square cells. It differs little from the standard Perfect command, except the Maze dimensions are taken from the Omega Shapes Dimensions in Create Settings, and passages will be as wide as possible that fits within the current bitmap. However this provides a simple square Maze to contrast with the triangular, hexagonal, and other shaped Mazes.

Theta (Circle): This creates a circular Maze formed of layers of concentric rings. The cells are mostly rectangular, and usually can have four passages leading from them, however some cells have five passages, because the number of cells in a ring increases as you go out from the center. It’s recommended to create this in a square bitmap so the Maze is circular instead of elliptical. The name of this style of Maze comes from the circular shape of the capital Greek letter Theta.

Sigma (Hexagon): This creates a hexagon shaped Maze that’s also formed of interlocking hexagons. All cells are hexagon shaped, and have up to six passages leading from them. The name of this style of Maze comes from the shape of the capital Greek letter Sigma, which has similar horizontal and diagonal angles seen in a hexagon.

Delta (Triangle): This creates a triangle shaped Maze that’s also formed of interlocking triangles. All cells are triangle shaped, and have up to three passages leading from them. The name of this style of Maze comes from the triangle shape of the capital Greek letter Delta.

Upsilon (Octagon): This creates a Maze formed of interlocking octagons and squares. All cells are either octagon or square shaped, and have up to eight or four passages leading from them. The name of this style of Maze comes from the capital Greek letter Upsilon, which has similar vertical and diagonal angles seen in this Maze.

The Mazes above can be generated using the Binary Tree algorithm. If the Use Eller’s Algorithm flag in File Settings is set, then each Maze will be created using an appropriate variation of the Binary Tree algorithm. For example, Sigma (Hexagon) Mazes will feature each hexagon cell have a passage leading left, up and to the left, or up and to the right, resulting in a ternary tree.

Zeta (8 Way): This creates a Maze on a standard rectangular grid, however diagonal 45 degree angle passages are allowed between cells in addition to horizontal and vertical ones. Each cell has up to eight passages leading from it. Like Weave Mazes, passages will always be one pixel thick and walls three pixels. The name of this style of Maze comes from the “Z” shape of the capital Greek letter Zeta.

Labyrinth: This submenu has commands to create various styles of unicursal Mazes. Unlike the random unicursal Mazes created with the Unicursal command, these always create the same fixed design. Unicursal Mazes are usually referred to today as Labyrinths, where these Labyrinths can be used as a tool for meditation and spiritual growth. As with the Omega Mazes above, these unicursal Mazes will be drawn within whatever size the bitmap is, where the larger the bitmap, the wider the Labyrinth’s passages. If the bitmap is too small to contain the specified Labyrinth, the bitmap will be automatically enlarged.

Current Labyrinth: This recreates whatever style of Labyrinth below was created most recently, i.e. whatever style is specified in the Labyrinth Type field in the Create Settings dialog.

Labyrinth Settings...: This dialog allows accessing settings that affect the Labyrinth creation commands on the Labyrinth submenu.

Current Labyrinth: This radio button group determines the type of Labyrinth to draw when the Current Labyrinth command is run. The six options here (Classical, Chartres, Cretan, Man In The Maze, Chartres Replica, and Custom) map to the corresponding commands on the Labyrinth submenu.

Circle: This is a radio button in the “circuit shape” group. When selected Labyrinths will be drawn entirely using curved circuits.

Rounded: This is a radio button in the “circuit shape” group. When selected Labyrinths will be drawn rectangular with horizontal and vertical walls, except the corners will be rounded.

Square: This is a radio button in the “circuit shape” group. When selected Labyrinths will be drawn rectangular with horizontal and vertical walls everywhere.

Flat: This is a radio button in the “circuit shape” group. When selected Labyrinths will be drawn flattened if possible, with circuits unfolded into rows.

Classical Size: This field indicates the number of circuits to include when the Current Labyrinth type is Classical or Man in the Maze. Setting this to 0 will result in a 3 circuit Labyrinth, 1 will result in the default sized 7 circuit Labyrinth, 2 will result in 11 circuits, and so on with each later number increasing the number of rings by four.

Classical Size is Circuits: When this is set, the number in the Classical Size field will indicate the exact number of circuits to use in the Classical or Man in the Maze type Labyrinths. This value will be rounded up to the nearest number that’s one less than a multiple of four, e.g. 3, 7, 11, and so on. On most Windows systems, classical Labyrinths can be created with up to 12003 circuits (size 3000 when this flag is off) before reaching memory allocation limits for bitmaps.

Custom Paths: This string indicates the custom sequence of circuits when drawing a custom Labyrinth. Circuits are specified in navigation order, where circuit 1 means the outer edge. Circuits may be specified with numbers where letters are used for circuits 10 and beyond, or circuits may be specified with just letters where “A” is the outer edge circuit. Custom Labyrinths may be created with up to 30 circuits. A blank string will produce a 0 circuit Labyrinth with a single wall.

The equals sign followed by a number will be mapped to the first Labyrinth with that many circuits, e.g. “=3” means “123” with sequentially increasing circuits. The equals sign followed by a negative number will be mapped to the last Labyrinth with that many circuits, e.g. “=-3” means “321” with sequentially decreasing circuits. The equals sign followed by “@” then a number of circuits will be mapped to a circuit sequence forming a single large spiral into and back out from the middle circuit, e.g. “=@5” translates to “52341” and “=@9” translates to “927456381”. The string “=Classical” will map to the circuits for the default classical seven circuit Labyrinth, namely “3214765”.

Different sequences of circuits (which are effectively different Labyrinths) may be separated by commas. For example, “=@5,1,-3” translates to a 5 circuit spiral (“@5” or “52341”), followed by a single circuit (“1”) in normal order, followed by three circuits in reverse order (“-3” or “321”). Subsequent tokens will have their numbers adjusted by the current offset in the Labyrinth, resulting in “523416987” for the whole Labyrinth above. The token prefix “'” (single quote) will treat the numbers following it as a standard Labyrinth circuit sequence, although offset appropriately if in a comma separated list.

Custom Autoiterate: When this flag is set, each time a custom Labyrinth is generated the Custom Paths field will be updated to a different valid Labyrinth. The Labyrinths will proceed in sequence through Labyrinths of the same number of circuits, skipping any circuit layouts that are invalid based on the Fanfolds Allowed and related settings. This feature can be used to display and count the number of Labyrinths possible of a given size.

If Don’t Autostart Infinite in File Settings is on, then automatically iterating Labyrinths will stop after the last valid Labyrinth of a given size is displayed. When that flag is off, progression loops back to the beginning or the initial Labyrinth with sequentially increasing circuits.

Fanfolds Allowed: This field determines whether extraneous circuits are allowed in autoiterated custom Labyrinths. A fanfold passage is two adjacent circuits (e.g. ...34... or ...65...), surrounded on either side by circuits moving in the same direction (e.g. ...4567... or ...8541...). In such a case the middle adjacent circuits can be considered extraneous since they don’t add anything important to the structure of the Labyrinth, since they amount to a “hiccup” along the way of the traversal between the circuits on either side of it. If there’s a direction change (e.g. ...6547... or ...6125...) then you can’t delete the middle adjacent circuits since they’re an integral part of the Labyrinth’s structure (or at least every Labyrinth has at least one sequence like this). When this value is 2, all Labyrinths will be shown regardless of fanfold circuits. When this value is 1, Labyrinths with obvious fanfolds involving 3 or more adjacent circuits (e.g. ...3458... or ...9654...) will be skipped. When this value is 0, only Labyrinths with no fanfold circuits anywhere will be shown (e.g. skip ...2569... and ...8541...).

Asymmetry Allowed: This field determines the asymmetry allowed in autoiterated custom Labyrinths. A Labyrinth is symmetric if it has the same circuit sequence when flipped inside out. When this value is 2, all Labyrinths will be shown regardless of symmetry. When this value is 1, only one of the two combinations of asymmetric Labyrinths will be shown. When this value is 0, only fully symmetric Labyrinths will be shown.

Circuit Partitioning: This field determines whether partionable Labyrinths are allowed in autoiterated custom Labyrinths. A Labyrinth can be circuit partitioned if at any point (other than the outer and innermost edges) there’s only one opening in the wall between two circuits, i.e. it can divided between any two circuits into two smaller Labyrinths. When this value is 2, all Labyrinths will be shown regardless of partitioning. When this value is 1, Labyrinths with trivial levels at the entrance or exit will be skipped, where such a situation is simply a partition involving a 1 circuit section on the outer or inner edge. When this value is 0, only Labyrinths with no partitioning anywhere will be shown.

Radius Partitioning: This field determines whether Labyrinths partitioned along the axis perpendicular to circuits are allowed in autoiterated custom Labyrinths. The only way to have a radius partition in a Labyrinth is next to the entrance or exit, by jumping from the entrance to the innermost circuit, or jumping from the outermost circuit to the center. When this value is 2, all Labyrinths will be shown regardless of radius partitioning. When this value is 1, Labyrinths with two radius partitions that both start with the inner circuit and end with the outer circuit will be skipped (but one of those radius partitions is allowed to be present). When this value is 0, only Labyrinths with no radius partitioning anywhere will be shown.

Radius: This radio button in the “custom align” group draws custom Labyrinths such that the main radial wall that’s adjacent to the entrance and exit and marks where circuits change direction is always centered within the Labyrinth. This will cause the entrance and exit to be offset half a passage width to the left or right of the main radial wall.

Entrance: This radio button in the “custom align” group draws custom Labyrinths such that the entrance is always centered within the Labyrinth. This will cause the main radial wall to be offset a half passage width to the right of the entrance.

Exit: This radio button in the “custom align” group draws custom Labyrinths such that the exit is always centered within the Labyrinth. This will cause the main radial wall to be offset a half passage width to the left or right of the exit.

Balanced: This radio button in the “custom align” group draws custom Labyrinths such that the entrance and exit are both centered as much as possible within the Labyrinth. For odd sized Labyrinths this will behave like Radius alignment where the radial wall will be centered with the entrance and exit offset on either size of it, and for even sized Labyrinths this will behave like Entrance and Exit alignments where the entrance and exit will be centered and the radial wall offset to their right.

Merged: This radio button in the “custom align” group allows custom Labyrinths to be generated so the entrance and exit to the center are aligned within the same column. If the entrance and exit are on opposite sides of the radial wall (which is always the case for odd number circuit Mazes) the radial wall will be bent so they can be aligned, leaving a small inaccessible area between the entrance and exit passages. If alignment already happens by default (which happens when the entrance and exit are on the same sides of the radial wall, always the case for even number circuit Mazes) then this behaves like Balanced. If alignment isn’t possible (which happens when the passages leading to the entrance and exit run parallel and would overlap) then this behaves like Exit, so at least the inner part of the Labyrinth looks the same regardless of whether merging is possible.

Note that a special Labyrinth will be drawn, when the dialog fields are set to “Classical”, “Square”, and “Merged”. It will be a variation of the classical Labyrinth with the number of circuits defined by the “Classical” fields. This Labyrinth always has walls and passages one pixel wide, and the bitmap won’t be resized. That means depending on the size of the Labyrinth and bitmap, the Labyrinth will be in the upper left corner of the bitmap, or clipped on the bottom right. This is basically a way to access the virtual Labyrinth drawn in the “World’s Largest Maze” script.

Custom Center Size: This field determines the diameter in passage widths of the center area in a custom Labyrinth. Some circuit sequences, circuit shapes, and entrance/exit alignments require a certain minimum center size to display properly. If the desired number is too small, the actual diameter used when drawing the Labyrinth will be the smallest possible. If this value is zero, the diameter will be the smallest possible that all Custom Path circuit sequences of that size can display within. This option allows automatically iterating through Labyrinths without the center changing sizes during the iteration.

Classical: This creates a classical seven circuit Labyrinth, which has seven rings and has been seen in many different cultures throughout the world.

Chartres: This creates a style called the Chartres Labyrinth, which has eleven rings and four quadrants, where the start and end passages are close but not perfectly lined up. This style has been popularized by a Labyrinth of this type in the floor of Chartres Cathedral in France, and is commonly walked for spiritual purposes today.

Cretan: This creates a style somewhat related to the Chartres Labyrinth called the Cretan Labyrinth, which has ten rings and four quadrants, where the start and end passages line up.

Man In The Maze: This creates a style called the Man in the Maze, which is a variant of and is topologically equivalent to the classical seven circuit Labyrinth. It has seven concentric circles with the seed pattern in the center, and is commonly seen in art of the Tohono O’Odham nation and other Native American tribes.

Flat Classical: This is like the Classical command, except the bottom half where the entrance is located is always square, which makes the Labyrinth look like a door or archway. The seed pattern isn’t a cross but is rather an uneven cross, which allows the passages on either side of the entrance to extend down to the same level.

Flat Chartres: This is like the Chartres command, in that it creates a Labyrinth topologically equivalent to the Chartres Labyrinth. This will however be an “unfolded” version of that Labyrinth, like if you cut the circular version in half between the start and finish, and unfolded it into a straight version. This unfolded version can help in understanding the design and symmetry of the standard version.

Chartres Replica: This is an improved version of the Chartres command. It creates the same pattern, except it adds extra decorations making it a true replica of the Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth. Specifically this adds or does the following things differently: (1) The Labyrinth here has truly circular rings, instead of just being rounded at the corners like the Chartres command. (2) This Labyrinth has lunations, or a ring of semicircles around the outside of it. Specifically there are 112 two-thirds circles (called cusps) and 113 points or lines connecting them (called foils). (3) This Labyrinth has a rosette or six petaled area in the middle. This is based on an invisible 13 sided polygon, where there are two sides per petal and one more side for the passage leading to the center. (4) This Labyrinth has extra curves that make the U-turn and corner points of the path rounded. This creates ten Labrys or double headed axe shapes along the axes of the Labyrinth.

Custom: This draws a unicursal Labyrinth with a custom specified circuit sequence. Each circuit fills an entire ring of the Labyrinth, each circuit alternates direction from the previous circuit, and the Labyrinth always starts on the outside and ends in the center. Like the other commands on the Labyrinth submenu, the circuits will be the widest possible that fit within the current bitmap dimensions. The circuit sequence comes from the Custom Paths field in the Labyrinth Settings dialog.

Partial Create: This submenu has commands to partially create a Maze. This means adding onto what’s already present in the bitmap, instead of clearing the bitmap and making a totally new random Maze.

Perfect At Dot: This is like the Perfect command in that it creates a perfect style Maze, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather it carves passages into whatever’s already on the bitmap. This means filling whatever solid area the dot is over with passages. It will also take existing passages next to solid areas anywhere on the bitmap, and continue the passages into those areas. If the dot isn’t over a solid area, and there are no existing passages to start from, Perfect At Dot will do nothing. This command can be used to create Mazes of irregular shapes, where you define the outline, fill it in, then do Perfect At Dot within it. This is also the way to have the computer partially create or finish creating a Maze, where you define the solution and main dead ends, and the program fills in the rest.

Braid Add Walls: This is related to the Braid command used to create Braid style Mazes without dead ends. This will add wall segments to the Maze in the bitmap in random order. Specifically it will add all possible walls that won’t cause a dead end to be created, and that won’t cause a section of the Maze to become inaccessible. The Braid command does this operation internally when creating Braid Mazes.

Unicursal Thinned: This is related to the Unicursal command used to create unicursal Mazes having a single path without junctions. This should only be run on a biased zoomed Maze where walls are one pixel thick and passages are three pixels. This adds walls bisecting each passage, where each old dead end becomes a new U-turn passage. When run on perfect Mazes, this basically turns the perfect Maze into a unicursal Maze. The Unicursal command does this operation internally when creating Unicursal Mazes.

Recursive At Dot: This is like the Recursive Backtrack command in that it creates a perfect style Maze using the recursive backtrack algorithm, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather carves passages into whatever’s already on the bitmap. This works exactly like the Perfect At Dot command, however this will not also extend existing passages. If you want to define the solution or anything other than the area to fill in, use Perfect At Dot.

Prim's At Dot: This is like the Prim’s Algorithm command in that it creates a perfect style Maze using Prim’s algorithm, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather carves passages into whatever’s already on the bitmap. This works exactly like Perfect At Dot, however this will not also extend existing passages.

Kruskal Passages: This is like the Kruskal’s Algorithm command in that it generates a Maze using that algorithm, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather carves passages into any solid areas already on the bitmap. This will not extend any existing passages into solid areas next to them.

This command supports the concept of separate Mazes, i.e. sets of points that should not have any path between them after the Maze is generated, even if those points are in the same connected island. This is implemented by assuming those points are already connected or have some invisible passage connecting them when carving additional passages. If the color bitmap exists, is the same size as the main bitmap, every off pixel in the main bitmap is black in the color, and every on pixel in the main bitmap is non-black in the color (i.e. the color bitmap is a copy of the main bitmap except with coloring) then the color bitmap will contain the pre-connected points to use in creation. Each cell pixel that’s non-white will be considered connected with every other cell that’s the same color, i.e. there will be no path between any such colored cells in the finished Maze. Cells that are white can be connected with any other cell. This pre-connected points feature is used to create perfect Mazes in the “Glacier Maze Simulation” script, where the pre-connected points are where bridges have their endpoints.

Tree At Dot: This is like the Growing Tree command in that it creates a Tree style Maze, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather carves passages into whatever’s already on the bitmap. This works exactly like Perfect At Dot, however this will not also extend existing passages. Note this command will always carve passages, even if Create With Wall Adding in the Create Settings dialog is set.

Weave At Dot: This is like the Weave command in that it creates a Weave style Maze, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather carves weave passages into whatever’s already on the bitmap. This will also extend any existing passages into solid areas next to them.

Crack Add Walls: This is like the Crack command in that it creates a Crack style Maze, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather adds lines to whatever’s already on the bitmap.

Cavern At Dot: This is like the Cavern command in that it creates a Cavern style Maze, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather carves passages into whatever’s already on the bitmap. This works like Perfect At Dot, however this will not also extend existing passages. Note this command will always carve passages, even if Create With Wall Adding in the Create Settings dialog is set.

Zeta At Dot: This is like the Zeta command in that it creates a Zeta style Maze, however this doesn’t clear the bitmap first, but rather carves passages into whatever’s already on the bitmap. This will also extend any existing passages into solid areas next to them.

Polished Mazes: Mazes in Daedalus can be created in a polished form. Polished Mazes look better and are ready for printing. Most Maze creation commands produce a Maze with walls and passages of equal thickness, where one may think it looks better to have walls thinner than passages. Also the default colors in the program have white walls on a black background, however the reverse is better to save ink when printing. This command sets a mode that will cause all created Mazes to have a polished form. Activating this mode will also switch from white on black to black and white coloring, switch from a gray to a white border, and center the bitmap in the window. Leaving this mode will do the reverse. Activating the mode will also polish any existing Maze in the bitmap if an appropriate Maze creation command was the most recent autorepeatable command run, while leaving polished mode will unpolish a Maze if possible. The only downside of polished Mazes is further commands such as solving tend to only work on the raw form of a Maze. Still, polished Mazes are the best for simply viewing and printing.

Polished standard orthogonal Mazes will have walls one pixel thick and passages three pixels (i.e. they automatically have the Zoom Bias command applied to them). Polished 3D and 4D Mazes will have transitions between levels indicated in cells in the main and color bitmaps (i.e. they automatically have the Clarify 3D or 4D commands applied to them). Polished Hypermazes are a 3D overview of the Hypermaze (i.e. they automatically have the Render Bitmap Overview command applied to them, using its settings). Non-orthogonal Mazes such as Crack, Cavern, and Zeta Mazes will have smoother walls (i.e. they automatically have the Smooth Zoomed command applied to them). The Chartres Replica Labyrinth will have filled in walls instead of hollow walls.

Create Settings...: This dialog accesses all settings dealing with creating specific types of Mazes.

Create With "River": This affects Maze generation commands that create or internally use perfect style Mazes. This includes the following commands: Perfect, Perfect At Dot, Unicursal, Outline, Weave, Weave At Dot, 3D, 4D, Arrow, Planair, Theta (Circle), Sigma (Hexagon), Delta (Triangle), Upsilon (Octagon), Zeta (8 Way), and Infinite. When set, the Maze will be created with a high river factor, with longer passages between junctions and fewer but longer dead ends. When unset, the Maze will created with a low river factor, with shorter passages and more but shorter dead ends.

Have "River" At Edges: This only plays a role in the Perfect At Dot command. When set, passages next to edges of the Maze will tend to follow along the edges. When unset, passages next to edges of the Maze will tend to move away from the edge or have dead ends near them.

No "River" Flowback: This subtle setting only plays a role in the Perfect At Dot command. When set, when creating the Maze the point carving it must always make a new passage, or else it enters “hunting” mode. When unset, the point carving the Maze is allowed to wander back into already created portions of the Maze while looking for a new passage to create. When unset the Maze will have a somewhat lower river factor.

Omega Dimensions: This contains the number of passages to include in Omega style Mazes. Specifically this means the number of rings of passages to have in circular Theta Mazes, the number of hexagons to have on an edge in hexagonal Sigma Mazes, and the number of rows of triangles to have in triangular Delta Mazes.

Omega Inner Dimensions: This value only plays a role when creating circular Theta Mazes. It contains the inner radius, i.e. how many rings from the center should not be passage rings but rather part of the center area. The larger the number, the bigger the central room.

Omega Start Location: This indicates the location to use for the entrance in Omega style Mazes. When this value is negative, it means to have the start at a random location. If the number or parts of the number are illegal for the Maze in question, it will also be chosen randomly.

For Theta Mazes, this value means to have the start on the inner ring at the nth segment clockwise starting from a 45 degree angle up and to the right.

For Sigma Mazes, the 1000’s place indicates which of the six sides to have the entrance on, ranging from 0 to 5. Side 0 is the top, 1 is the upper right, 2 is upper left, 3 is lower right, 4 is lower left, and 5 is the bottom. The last three digits indicate which hexagon on that side to have the entrance in. Hexagons are counted from top to bottom for all but sides 0 and 5, and from left to right for sides 0 and 5. The 10000’s place indicates which outer wall segment in that hexagon to have the entrance in, ranging from 0 to 1. Again it’s the upper or leftmost wall segment that’s considered segment 0.

For Delta Mazes, the 1000’s place indicates which of the three sides to have the entrance on, ranging from 0 to 2. Side 0 is the upper left, 1 is the upper right, and 2 is the bottom. The last three digits indicate which wall segment on that side to have the entrance in. This is counted from top to bottom for sides 0 and 1, and from left to right for side 2.

For Upsilon Mazes, the 1000’s place indicates which of the four sides to have the entrance on, ranging from 0 to 3. Side 0 is the top, 1 is the left, 2 is bottom, and 3 is right. The last three digits indicate which wall segment on that side to have the entrance in. This is counted from top to bottom for sides 0 and 2, and from left to right for sides 1 and 3.

Omega Finish Location: This indicates the location to use for the exit in Omega style Mazes. The values here are treated the same as in Start Location. The only difference is for Theta Mazes the finish will be on the outer ring of the Maze instead of the inner.

Omega Picture: This radio button group allows creating Omega Mazes to also automatically generate Daedalus wireframe and patch scenes of that Maze. When set to Screen Only, Omega Mazes will only be drawn in the main bitmap. If set to Make Wireframe Also, creating the Maze (in addition to drawing in the bitmap) will also generate a Daedalus wireframe scene, which can be rendered, saved as a Windows metafile, and so on using commands on the Draw menu. If set to Make Patches Also, creating the Maze will also generate a Daedalus patch scene, that can be rendered and such using commands on the Draw menu.

Planair: The string here controls the arrangement of Planair Mazes, and indicates both how many sections there are in it, and how the sections connect with each other, i.e. where you end up when you move off each of the four edges of each section. The string here must consist of groups of eight characters separated by spaces. The number of groups indicates the number of sections in the Maze. Each group of eight characters has two characters for each of the four edges of that section. The edges are in the order: top, left, bottom, and right. The two characters indicate the section and edge within that section you go to when moving off that edge. The first character is a lower case letter, where “a” is the first section in the string, “b” the second section, and so on. The second character is a number from 0 to 7. The numbers 0 to 3 mean the top, left, bottom, and right edges in that order. The numbers 4 to 7 also mean those edges, but you go to the passages on that edge in reverse order (i.e. from right to left, or from bottom to top, instead of the other way around). Planair Mazes get the size of each of their sections from the same 3D bitmap dimensions fields 3D Mazes themselves use. Since Planair Maze sections can be rectangular, an error will be displayed if you try to link up an edge with an edge of a different length. A warning will be displayed if you define or create a Planair Maze with a one way edge link, where a bad edge alignment is if a passage is set to flow from edge #1 to edge #2, but flowing back from edge #2 doesn’t return to the same spot on edge #1.

For example, to have a Maze on the surface of a torus where the left and right edges wrap, along with the top and bottom, enter “a2a3a0a1” (this is the default text in the Planair field). To have a Maze on the surface of a cube, to specify the six sides enter “e2d3f0b1 e7a3f3c1 e4b3f6d1 e1c3f5a1 c4d0a0b4 a2d6c6b2”. To have an edge be a true edge instead of connecting with some section when you move off it, have that edge link up with itself. To have a Maze on the surface of a Moebius strip, enter “a0a3a2a1”. A normal Maze without any special links is the string “a0a1a2a3”.

Segment: The input here indicates what textures to use and where they should be, when creating a segmented Maze with varying textures with the Segment command. This should be entered as a list of numbers, specifically a series of groups of nine numbers each, with a final terminating zero after the last group.

The first number indicates what type of texture to use. The number 1 means to affect the “river” factor of the passages in the Maze, the number 2 means to affect the horizontal or vertical bias of the passages, and the number 3 means to affect the random “run” factor of passages.

The next four numbers indicate the rectangle to apply that texture to, specified as the horizontal and vertical pixel coordinates of the upper left and lower right corners of that rectangle. If any rectangles overlap that have the same texture type, the earlier group has precedence.

The final four numbers indicate how to apply the given texture within the rectangle. Each number indicates how to apply the texture at one of the corners of the rectangle, where the first number is the upper left corner, the second is the upper right, third is lower left, and fourth is lower right. If all four numbers are the same, that means to apply the texture evenly throughout the rectangle, while if any are different, the amount of texture will gradually change or fade from corner to corner. For texture type 1, a number means the percentage of “river” to have, where 0 means minimum river and 100 means maximum. For texture type 2, a number means the random bias to have, which is interpreted in the same way as the Random Bias field in the Random Settings dialog. For texture type 3, a number means the random “run” factor to have, which is interpreted in the same way as the Random Run field in Random Settings.

The default segmented Maze in the Segment List field should be created within a 256x192 pixel bitmap. The top half of the Maze has a 0% river factor, while the bottom half of the Maze has a 100% river factor. The left half of the Maze has a vertical bias, while the right half of the Maze has a horizontal bias. Finally the middle quadrant has a high random run factor. After running the Segment command you should be able to see different textures in each of the four quadrants, and a different texture overlapping in the middle, for eight different types total.

Create With Wall Adding: This controls whether the Growing Tree command creates the Maze by carving passages or adding walls. This also affects the Perfect, Prim’s, Kruskal’s, Aldous-Broder, Wilson’s, Eller’s, and Cavern Maze creation commands.

Wall added Perfect Mazes are made by adding onto the most recently created wall whenever possible, and usually only creating other walls when forced to. The Maze here will have a lower “river” factor than when Create With Wall Adding is off. Wall added Prim’s Algorithm Mazes have walls grow inward from the boundary wall, instead of having passages grow outward from some point in the middle. Wall added Kruskal’s Algorithm Mazes add wall segments instead of passages throughout the Maze at random. Wall added Aldous-Broder and Wilson’s Algorithm Mazes also have walls grow inward from the boundary wall, where they not only still have the property where all possible Mazes are created with equal probability, but wall added versions are generated nearly twice as fast too.

Tree Value Is Random Chance: This controls how the Growing Tree algorithm determines what section to add onto next. When this is clear, the algorithm will randomly pick one of the most recently created sections to add onto. This will tend to make the Maze have a long and windy solution. When set, the algorithm will always add onto the most recently created section, however sometimes it will choose a completely random section. This will tend to make the Maze have a short direct solution.

Tree "River" Value: When Value Is Random Chance is off, this checkbox sets how many of the most recently created sections to choose among. The higher the value, the less windy the solution. The Maze will tend to have many dead ends, unless the value is zero in which case it will have few dead ends. When Value is Random Chance is on, this set how often the algorithm will pick a completely random section. The higher the value, the more windy the solution. The Maze will tend to have few dead ends, unless the value is very low in which case it will have many dead ends.

If Create With Wall Adding and Value Is Random Chance are off, and River Value is zero, the Growing Tree algorithm will exactly emulate the Recursive Backtrack algorithm, with a windy solution and few but long dead ends. If Create With Wall Adding is off, Value is Random Chance is on, and River Value is zero or a very low number, the Growing Tree algorithm will behave similarly but not exactly to Prim’s Algorithm, with a short direct solution and many but short dead ends. If Value Is Random Chance is off, and River Value is a low number greater than zero, the Maze will have a windy solution, and also many but short dead ends. If Value Is Random Chance is on, and River Value is a low number not too close to zero, the Maze will have a short direct solution, and also few but long dead ends.

Note if Value Is Random Chance is off, River Value may be negative, in which case it means how many of the earliest created sections to choose among instead. This will give the Maze a unique look, with about as many dead ends as it’s physically possible to have in a Maze, even more than Prim’s Algorithm, where there will be many “pipe cleaner” passages, with many one unit dead ends hanging off the main passages like short hairs.

Max Spirals: This sets the maximum number of spirals that can be drawn at once during creation of a Spiral Maze. Larger numbers make the Maze have many smaller spirals, while smaller numbers make the Maze have fewer larger spirals.

Max Spiral Walls: This sets the maximum number of walls that can be drawn at once around each spiral in a Spiral Maze. Larger numbers make spirals have many passages that rapidly spiral away from the center, while smaller numbers make spirals have fewer passages that go around the center more times.

Spiral Random Addition: This affects both Spiral and Diagonal Mazes, and changes the number of random walls and passages to add during their creation. Both these Mazes draw a base design, then do what amounts to running the Add Passage or Add Wall command a number of times, where the number of times this is done can be modified by this field. A high number will make the Maze more random and look less like its base design, while a high negative number will make the Maze be nothing but its base design with longer passages and dead ends.

Fractal X & Y: These fields determine the size of a fractal Maze. They are the number of horizontal and vertical passages of the Maze at each nesting level.

Fractal Nesting Level: This determines how many levels of nesting there are within a fractal Maze, or how many times a new X by Y Maze should be nested within each cell of the Maze while creating it. The total size of a fractal Maze is determined by this nesting level and the X and Y fields. For example, if X is 5, Y is 4, and the nesting level is 3, then the complete Maze is 5^3 by 4^3 or 125 by 64 passages. In other words it’s a 5x4 Maze, with each cell containing another 5x4 Maze, with each cell of that containing a third 5x4 Maze.

Allow Isolations In Fractal: This affects Mazes created with the Recursive Fractal command. When this is set, creation won’t insist that every part of the Maze be reachable from the start. Creation will still always ensure there exists at least one solution, and normally ensures every passage is reachable on some level, i.e. that there are no isolated inaccessible passages.

Crack Lines May Head Off: This affects Mazes created with the Crack command. When unset, random lines will always be drawn with both the starting and ending points within the bitmap. This means lines near the corners of the Maze will tend to point toward the center, since the endpoint of a line that starts in a corner has to be still on the bitmap and so is likely in the direction of the center. When set, the desired ending point may be off the edge of the bitmap, which means the texture of the corner areas is the same as everywhere else.

Crack Line Length: This value sets the maximum length lines in a Crack Maze can have. No line will ever be longer than half the size of the bitmap. Note smaller values require a larger value for the Crack Pass Limit field to ensure all parts of the Maze get filled out and prevent an open space in the center.

Crack Pass Limit: This value indicates how long Crack Mazes will draw lines before stopping. Larger values mean fewer open spaces within the Maze, however the Maze will take longer to make.

Crack Line Sectors: This value will modify Crack Mazes so that all random lines are restricted to certain angles. A value of 1 forces all lines to be in the horizontal plane, a value of 2 forces all lines to be horizontal or vertical, 3 forces all lines to be in a triangular grid, and so on. Negative numbers rotate the angles by half a sector, e.g. a value of 1 forces all lines to be in the vertical plane, 2 forces all lines to be diagonal, and so on. The default value of zero allows all angles.

Cavern Sparseness: This setting allows Mazes created with the Cavern command to be sparse, where the algorithm won’t fill in all available space with passages or walls. The value determines the minimum interior wall thickness in pixels for passage carved caverns, or the minimum interior passage thickness for wall added caverns. For wall added sparse caverns, the entrance and exit passages will have the same minimum passage width as the interior passages.

Kruskal Based On Picture: This flag affects Mazes created with the Kruskal’s Algorithm and Kruskal Passages commands. When set, the wall and passage layout within the created Maze will resemble an image in a color bitmap, assuming that bitmap exists. The Kruskal’s Algorithm command will make the Maze resemble the main color bitmap, and the Kruskal Passages command will resemble the temporary color bitmap (because the main color bitmap has a different effect on the Kruskal Passages command when present). Passages will be biased to appear more often in areas of high contrast in the picture, or in other words the more distinct the edge, the more likely a passage will be present at the same pixel in the Maze. Specifically this causes Kruskal’s algorithm to attempt to carve walls in order of contrast between the colors of the adjacent cells. This will cause certain passages and walls to always be present, where only areas of equal contrast will be randomized.

Weave Crossings May Corner: When this is set, Weave Mazes can have corners at points where passages overlap. Normally there will only be straightaways at overlap points, where when a passage goes over or under another, it will keep going straight as opposed to making a turn there.

Tilt Lines Make No Diamonds: This affects the Maze designs created with the Tilt command. When this is set, there will never be any “diamonds” or places where 2x2 groups of diagonal lines fit together to make a diamond shaped space. When unset, these diamonds are allowed to appear in the designs.

Tilt Cell Size: This affects the size in pixels of each cell of tilt Mazes created with the Tilt command. If this value is positive, then every cell will have its own separate grid of pixels. If this value is negative, then there will be boundary rows and columns of pixels that contain shared vertexes between cells. This should be at least 3 for the passages to be apparent and wide enough to be followed.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - SOLVE MENU

Solve Menu: This contains all the ways of completely or partially solving different types of Mazes. Most of these commands edit the monochrome bitmap, and replace the Maze with a solved version of it, where false passages get filled in. If however the color bitmap is active, most commands on this menu will put the solution in the color bitmap, leaving the original Maze alone in the monochrome bitmap. False or highlighted paths will be filled in with the Dot color from the Set Colors dialog, and any walls that get highlighted will be marked with the Overlay color.

Fill Dead Ends: This fills in all dead ends, including any passages that become dead ends once other dead ends are filled. This will completely solve and show the one unique solution for perfect Mazes, however the more passage loops in the Maze, the less this will do, where this won’t do anything at all to completely braid Mazes that don’t have dead ends. If Bitmap Is 3D is set, this will fill in the dead ends of a 3D Maze as generated with the the Create 3D command, where the dimensions of the 3D Maze are taken from the Size or Maze Size dialogs.

Fill Cul-De-Sacs: This fills in all cul-de-sacs or noose shaped passages, i.e. constructs in the Maze consisting of a blind alley stem that has a single loop at the end with no other junctions along that loop. This will also fill in areas that become cul-de-sacs after other cul-de-sacs are filled. This is implemented by adding wall segments turning cul-de-sacs into long dead ends, and then filling in the dead ends. This doesn’t do much in heavily braid Mazes with lots of passage loops, but will be able to invalidate more than just Fill Dead Ends.

Fill Blind Alleys: This finds all possible solutions, regardless of how long or short they may be. This does do by filling in all blind alleys, where a blind alley is a passage where if you walk down it in one direction, you have to backtrack through that passage in the opposite direction in order to reach the exit. All dead ends are blind alleys, as are all cul-de-sacs described above, as is any sized section of passages connected to the rest of the Maze by only a single stem. This command is unfortunately rather slow. This will basically invalidate everything Fill Cul-De-Sacs will and then some, however Fill Collisions will invalidate everything this command will and then some.

Fill Collisions: This finds all shortest solutions, only showing multiple solutions if there are more than one of the same length. This is implemented by internally “flooding” the Maze with “water”, such that equal distances from the start are touched at the same time, where whenever two “columns of water” come down a passage from opposite sides (indicating a loop) a wall segment is added where they collide. Once all reachable parts of the Maze have been flooded, all the dead ends are filled (which can’t be on a shortest path), and the process is repeated until no more collisions happen. The starting point for “flooding” is the dot, and if the dot is not an off pixel on the bitmap it’s first available entrance in the top row.

Find A Path: This finds one particular solution, which likely won’t be the shortest solution if the Maze has more then one. This is different from the commands above because it will work on any Maze, and doesn’t require there to be any one pixel wide passages to invalidate. When the command is done, the bitmap will be erased and the solution path will be shown as a trail of off pixels. If the No Corner Hopping checkbox in the Dot Settings dialog is off, that means the solution path may move diagonally, which for example can be used to find the solution to Zeta Mazes with their one pixel wide diagonal passages. It’s interesting to note this uses a recursive backtracking algorithm similar to the method used to create Mazes in the Recursive Backtrack command. This command needs to know what to consider the start and end of the Maze, where there are a few possibilities:

If the dot is over an on pixel, the start will be considered the first off pixel in the top row, and the end will be the bottom edge of the bitmap. This allows solving Mazes that have the entrance at the top and the exit at the bottom, as most of the Mazes generated on the Create menu do. This is the default behavior, since the dot starts out in the upper left corner and is there unless you’ve moved it, and the upper left corner is usually an on pixel after creating a Maze.

If the dot is over an off pixel, the start will be considered the location of the dot, and the end will be any edge of the bitmap. This allows solving Mazes that either start or end somewhere in the middle of the bitmap.

Either way, if the second dot is over an off pixel, and is anywhere other than in the upper left corner, then the location of the second Dot will be considered an end too. This allows solving Mazes that both start and end in the middle of the bitmap. This is not default behavior, since the second dot is in the upper left corner unless you’ve moved it, and the upper left corner is usually an on pixel too.

If the Solve Fillers Consider Dots As Exits checkbox in the Maze Settings dialog is on, and both the dot and 2nd dot are within the Maze and over off pixels, then a solution will be found connecting the dots only, and the edge of the bitmap will be ignored.

Find Shortest Path: This finds a shortest solution, picking one if there are multiple shortest solutions. This behaves like Find A Path in every way, just that it uses a different algorithm to find the solution. Normally this solver always picks the same shortest path when there’s more than one, however if the Find A Path Finds Random Path checkbox in the Maze Settings dialog is on, this will pick a random shortest path.

Find Shortest Paths: This finds all shortest solutions. This does exactly the same thing as Find Shortest Path, except it will show all shortest solution paths if there’s more than one.

Wall Following: This submenu contains ways to solve Mazes that involve following a wall.

Follow Wall Left: This tries to solve the Maze by following a wall. The computer will follow passages and always take the leftmost choice at junctions, which is equivalent to a person solving a Maze by putting their hand on the left wall and leaving it there as they walk through. This probably won’t find the shortest solution if the Maze has more than one, and it won’t find a solution at all if the goal is in the center of the Maze and there’s a passage loop surrounding it, because wall following will make you go around the center and eventually find yourself back at the start. This is similar to Find A Path in that it will work on any Maze and doesn’t require there to be one pixel wide passages to follow. When the command is done, the bitmap will be erased and all passages that wall following went through will be shown as trails of off pixels. Wall following will start from the location and current direction of the dot if it’s over an off pixel, otherwise it will start from the first off pixel in the top row. Wall following will end at the following places: (1) Upon reaching any edge of the bitmap, meaning wall following found an exit, (2) upon returning to the start point, meaning wall following failed to find a solution, or (3) upon reaching the location of the second dot, assuming the second dot is over an off pixel, and is anywhere other than in the upper left corner.

Follow Wall Right: This is exactly like Follow Wall Left in every way, just that it follows the right hand wall instead of the left. Note a wall following command will show more than just the solution path, in that it will also show all the blind alleys it went down while following the wall on that side. To show only the actual solution path, run also the opposite wall following command, which will go down just the solution path and discard the extra blind alleys. For example, to show the rightmost solution path, do Follow Wall Right and then do Follow Wall Left.

Pledge Algorithm Left: This tries to solve a Maze using the Pledge algorithm. Pledge algorithm is similar to wall following, hence it has a version that follows the left wall and another following the right. Solving works by always moving in the direction specified by the Direction field in Dot Settings when possible, and wall following when not. Moving in the direction allows jumping between islands, so this can solve Mazes wall following can’t. Pledge algorithm is guaranteed to find a way to an exit on the outer edge of any Maze from any point in the middle, however it can’t do the reverse, namely find an arbitrary solution point within the Maze. The Maze is unsolvable if the turn total keeps increasing, meaning the solver is caught going around inside an inaccessible area. The Pass Limit field in Create Settings specifies how high the turn total can get before giving up.

Pledge Algorithm Right: This is exactly like Pledge Algorithm Left in every way, just it uses right hand wall following instead of left.

Chain Algorithm: This will solve Mazes using the chain algorithm, which is similar to wall following, but is able to jump between islands. Solving proceeds from the dot to 2nd dot, or the first available passage on the top and/or bottom rows if the dots aren’t positioned over valid passages. The solving path moves along an invisible straight line between the start and end points. If that line bumps into a Maze wall, then wall following robots proceed in both directions until one reaches the invisible line again.

3D: This submenu contains ways to solve various types of special Mazes which don’t fit on a flat 2D plane.

Fill Weave Dead Ends: This is like Fill Dead Ends, but works on Weave Mazes created with the Weave command on the Create menu.

Fill 4D Dead Ends: This is like Fill Dead Ends, but works on 4D Mazes generated with the 4D command on the Create menu. The dimensions of the 4D Maze are taken from the Size or Maze Size dialogs.

Fill Hyper Dead Ends: This solves a Hypermaze created with the Hyper command on the Create menu, and is similar to Fill Dead Ends in that it fills in pixels that aren’t on the solution. This leaves behind a narrow one pixel wide crack splitting the 3D object which marks out the solution surface.

Find Recursive Fractal: This solves an infinite recursive fractal Maze in the main bitmap that was created with the Recursive Fractal command. It is assumed the Nesting Level field in Create Settings is set to the number of chips in the Maze, where the X and Y fractal fields define the number of pins across and down each chip. When run, a message box will display the shortest move solution. Press Cancel to stop, or press OK to display the next shortest solution. By default Daedalus will search for all solutions up to a chip depth of 10, and up to 50 moves.

The solution is displayed as a sequence of moves. Each move consists of a start location and an end location. Each location is either the start “---”, end “+++”, or a pin on a chip. Chips are indicated by their number, or nothing for the outer edge of the current chip. Pins are indicated by the direction of the edge (NWSE) followed by the numeric position of the pin along that edge, increasing from 1 from left to right, or top to bottom. For example, “1S10” means the 10th pin from the left on the bottom of chip #1, and “W1” means the topmost left pin on the outer rim.

Tremaux's Algorithm: This solves a Maze using Trémaux’s algorithm. This method works for all Mazes (even Mazes with loops) and can be implemented by a person inside of a Maze. Unlike most solving commands, this never changes the Maze in the main bitmap, but rather draws the solution in the color bitmap. Markings in the Dot color indicate the solution path, i.e. where a passage was navigated and marked once. Markings in the Overlay color indicate false paths that were visited, i.e. where a passage was navigated and marked twice.

If the Solve Fillers Check Every Pixel flag in the Maze Settings dialog is set, the command won’t assume the Maze is on a grid with passages always on odd pixels. Rather it will consider every pixel as a possible passage. Since Trémaux’s algorithm works by considering markings between cells, this case necessitates drawing the solution in a zoomed version of the Maze bitmap. If the Find A Path Finds Random Path flag in Maze Settings is set, solving won’t always choose paths in the same order.

Mark Dead Ends: This is like Fill Dead Ends, however it will only partially fill in each dead end, where each dead end will have its last cell or two filled. This can be run multiple times to remove more and more of the dead ends from the Maze. This allows Mazes to be made easier a step at a time instead of solving it all at once. This also allows seeing the layout of the main passages in a Maze and what areas are reachable from others, once the minor “leaf” like dead ends are no longer cluttering the Maze and only the main “branch” passages are left.

Mark Cul-De-Sacs: This is similar to Fill Cul-De-Sacs, however instead of filling in all cul-de-sac passages, it will instead just convert each cul-de-sac into a long dead end by adding a wall segment at an appropriate point. For example running this on a Maze created with the Braid command will add some dead ends to the Maze resulting in a partially braid Maze with both loops and dead ends.

Mark Blind Alleys: This is similar to Fill Blind Alleys, however this only seals off and fills in the blind alley passages themselves, as opposed to also the section of passages that may be behind the stem. This runs much faster than Fill Blind Alleys, however it will create inaccessible sections out of cul-de-sacs and other blind alleys that are more than just dead ends.

Mark Collisions: This is similar to Fill Collisions, however instead of filling in all passages not on a solution path, it will instead just add wall segments where the “collisions” happen, removing most of the passage loops from the Maze.

Fill Single Dead Ends: This is like Fill Dead Ends, in that it fills in all dead ends, however it won’t fill in passages that become dead ends once other dead ends are filled. As with Mark Dead Ends, this can be run multiple times to remove more and more of the dead ends from the Maze.

Show Bottlenecks: This will show all bottlenecks in the Maze, by filling in all passages that aren’t bottlenecks. A bottleneck is a passage or intersection such that every solution to the Maze goes through it.

Flood Passages: This will flood the bitmap starting from the bottom right corner. Since that’s usually an off pixel, this is basically flooding the passages. This basically does the same as the Fill At Dot command if the dot is in the bottom right corner. A simple yet useful way to get information about a Maze is to flood it, because it will touch all areas and only those areas reachable from the start point. Any parts not flooded indicate areas inaccessible from the start. If you flood the passage at the start, and the end isn’t filled, the Maze has no solution.

Flood Walls Left: This will flood the bitmap starting from the top left corner. Since that’s usually an on pixel, this is basically “flooding” along the tops of the walls, and will be like if you were to lift up the wall at that point and carry away whatever parts of the Maze connect with it. For Mazes with an entrance and exit on the edges, when one of the halves is removed, the remaining half marks out a solution. For Mazes with the start or goal in the middle, when the outer wall is flooded, if the inner wall around the exit isn’t also erased, then wall following won’t work to solve it.

Flood Walls Right: This is like Flood Walls Left but will do it to the right half of the Maze. This will flood the bitmap starting from the top right corner, or rather one pixel to the left from the top right corner. Since that’s usually the top rightmost on pixel in a Maze, this is basically “flooding” along the tops of the walls at that point.

 

DAEDALUS MENU COMMANDS - DRAW MENU

Draw Menu: This contains advanced graphic commands which operate on the main bitmap or other data in memory and have as their result another bitmap. This includes simple orthographic views of 2D and 3D bitmaps, along with general wireframe and polygon based true perspective graphics scenes. These aren’t related to Mazes, but can be used to create nice displays of Mazes or other things.

Draw Settings...: This dialog contains size and location settings used by many of the commands on the Draw menu. Most fields are used in similar ways by multiple commands.

Horizontal Size & Vertical Size & Depth Size: These values affect all the commands on the Draw menu that deal with blocks in any way. They indicate the pixel size of the blocks to be drawn in the Render Bitmap Overview and Render Pyramid commands. They also indicate the draw unit size of the blocks for the commands that make wireframe or patch scenes.

Horizontal Size Bias & Vertical Size Bias: These values affect the Make Wireframe Bitmap Overview and Make Patch Bitmap Overview commands. They are similar to fields in the Zoom Bias dialog, and allow walls in scenes representing Mazes to be a different thickness than passages. The numbers here will be used for the length of line segments corresponding to even numbered rows and columns in the bitmap i.e. walls, instead of the numbers in the Horizontal Size and Vertical Size fields. These values should be the same as Horizontal and Vertical Size unless you do want walls and passages to have different widths.

X Starting Location & Y Starting Location & Z Starting Location: These values affect the perspective rendering commands. They indicate the coordinates in three dimensional space to view the scene from. These values also affect the commands that make wireframes or patches in memory, where the numbers here will be added to every coordinate generated, allowing the entire scene to be offset by some amount.

Move With Arrow Keys: This allows you to walk around through the 3D perspective scenes created with Render Wireframe Perspective and Render Patch Perspective. When set, this will make the dot movement commands no longer affect the dot, but rather change the viewing coordinates and viewing angle in Draw Settings. The perspective rendering command executed most recently will also automatically be done to update the display. The number of draw units to move and the number of degrees to rotate at a time are taken from the Motion Velocity and Rotation Velocity fields. Here’s what the dot movement commands (with their shortcut keys in parentheses) do in this mode:

Up (up arrow) will move forward in the direction you’re facing, Down (down arrow) will back up, Left (left arrow) will rotate to the left, and Right (right arrow) will rotate to the right. Raise (“u”) will levitate up, and Lower (“d”) will sink down. Jump Left (Shift+left arrow) and Jump Right (Shift+right arrow) will sidestep or strafe to the left or right. Jump Up (Shift+up arrow) will pitch the view upward, and Jump Down (Shift+down arrow) will pitch the view downward.

X Vanishing Point & Y Vanishing Point: These values affect the Render Pyramid command. They indicate the pixel coordinate where the vanishing point will be. This must be a legal coordinate within the bounds of the bitmap Render Pyramid creates.

Viewing Angle Theta: This affects the render perspective commands. It indicates the angle to look at the scene from the starting location coordinates. A value of 0 means to look along the increasing Y axis, a value of 90 means to look along the increasing X axis, and so on around the 360 degree circle.

Vertical Pitch Phi: This affects the render perspective commands. It indicates the amount to look up or down along the viewing angle. A value of 0 means to look straight ahead, a value of 45 means to look down at a 45 degree angle, and a negative number means to look up by that many degrees. Note if this value exceeds 90 or -90, you’ll be upside down, in which case the sky color will be drawn below the horizon line and the ground color above it, instead of the reverse.

Motion Velocity: This only plays a role when Move With Arrow Keys is set. It indicates the number of draw units to move at a time when a dot movement command is run. Note if the Move By Two dot editing flag is on, movement will happen at twice the rate as is normal, allowing that setting to act as a “run” or “turbo” mode.

Rotation Velocity: This only plays a role when Move With Arrow Keys is set. It indicates the number of degrees to turn at a time when a dot rotation command is run. Note if the Drag By Two dot editing flag is on, rotation in place will happen at twice the rate as is normal.

View From Right: This affects the Render Bitmap Overview command. When set the overview will appear to be seen from somewhat right of center, where you can see down the right hand sides of the blocks. When unset the overview will appear to be seen from left of center.

Merge Blocks Together: This affects Render Bitmap Overview, Render Pyramid, and the commands that make wireframes or patches in memory. This makes adjacent individual blocks appear to be a single large object. When set the edges between blocks won’t be indicated in an overview on the screen, the blocks in Render Pyramid will appear solid, and edges between blocks in the created wireframe or patch scene will not be shown when that scene is rendered. When unset an overview will appear composed of individual blocks placed next to each other, the blocks in Render Pyramid will appear transparent, and all edges around blocks in a scene will be drawn when that scene is rendered.

Obscure Draw Settings...: This dialog contains additional minor or less fundamental settings used by the perspective rendering commands.

Reflect Coordinates: When this is checked, the entire scene will be inverted through the Y-axis before being rendered. The range of Y coordinates covered won’t change, e.g. if coordinates range from Y=0 to y=100, the scene will be flipped across the plane Y=50. It’s recommended to have this set for scenes created by the make wireframe and patch commands, to prevent objects in the scene from being a mirror image of what you expect, because the rendering assumes a right-handed coordinate system, while the bitmaps are in a left-handed coordinate system with X increasing to the east, Y increasing to the south, and Z increasing up.

Shade Sky: This only plays a role in the monochrome patch and wireframe renderings. When set, the “sky” area above the horizon will be filled with the drawing color. You probably don’t want to use this with Render Wireframe Perspective, because the lines it draws which are done in the same drawing color won’t show up on it.

Shade Ground: This only plays a role in the monochrome patch and wireframe renderings. When set, the “ground” area below the horizon will be half filled with the drawing color, creating a dithered gray shade there. You probably don’t want to use this with Render Perspective Wireframe, because the lines it draws which are done in the drawing color won’t show up on it very well.

Draw Edges: This only plays a role in the patch renderings. When set, edges between polygons will be indicated with one pixel wide line segments. When unset, you have to rely on patch shading, different colors of patches, or different colors between patches and the background, to see where the edges are.

Shade Objects: This only plays a role in Render Patch Perspective. When set, the polygons will be shaded based on the angle between them and the light source. In the color scene generated when Show Color Bitmap is on, the color of each polygon will be lightened the more it faces the light source, and darkened the more it faces away from it. In the monochrome scene generated when Show Color Bitmap is off, each polygon will be dithered between the background color (when facing more toward the light source) and the draw color (when facing away from the light source) to simulate shades of gray.

Do Touch Ups: This only plays a role in the patch renderings and when Draw Edges is set. Sometimes you may notice that not all parts of all line segments show up. This happens because later drawn polygons may partially overlap the edge’s pixels. When this is set, Daedalus will spend a little extra time during the rendering to redraw some of the edges that were covered in this way.

Border Width: This is the pixel width of the border that surrounds the rendered bitmap. This may be set to zero to not draw a border.

Horizon Width: This is the pixel width of the horizon line that separates the sky from the ground. This may be set to zero to not draw the horizon, say if you want to simulate being in space instead of on the ground.

Distance Scale: This affects the apparent distance of objects in the scene with respect to how far away they are from the viewing location. Increase this value to make objects appear closer and decrease this to make them appear farther away.

X Scale & Y Scale & Z Scale: These values apply a scale factor to the objects in the scene. For example if you double all the numbers here, everything will appear twice as big. You can also apply different scales to each coordinate axis. For example if you cut just the Z Scale value in half, everything will appear half as tall, while having the same width.

Edge Color: This only plays a role in Render Wireframe Perspective and Render Patch Perspective when Show Color Bitmap is on. It indicates the color to use for the wireframe itself, for edges around polygons, and the color to use for the horizon line and border.

Sky Color (High) & Sky Color (Low): These fields only play a role in Render Patch Perspective when Show Color Bitmap is on. They indicate the color to use for the “sky” background area above the horizon line. The colors in the scene will gradually fade from the Sky Color (High) value at the top of the bitmap to the Sky Color (Low) value at the horizon line.

Ground Color (High) & Ground Color (Low): These fields only play a role in Render Patch Perspective when Show Color Bitmap is on. They indicate the color to use for the “ground” background area below the horizon line. The colors in the scene will gradually fade from the Ground Color (High) value at the horizon line to the Ground Color (Low) value at the bottom of the bitmap.

Object Color: This only plays a role in Render Patch Perspective when Show Color Bitmap is on. It indicates the default color to use to use for polygons. This color will be used whenever patches don’t already have a color specified for themselves in the patch file. Patch files created by Daedalus with the Save Patches command sometimes don’t specify colors so will use the color here when reloaded. The SOLIDS.DP sample patch file does specify patch colors so will ignore the color here when rendered.

X Light Vector & Y Light Vector & Z Light Vector: These fields only play a role in Render Patch Perspective when Shade Objects is set. They indicate the direction from which the light source is coming, and control how the polygons are shaded.

Render Bitmap Overview: This creates an orthographic 3D overview of the main bitmap, which means a non-perspective view composed of only orthogonal and 45 degree angle lines. The view will be looking down on and looking across the bitmap with its bottom edge closest to you. Each on pixel will become a block in the scene. In the Draw Settings dialog, the Horizontal Size value will be the width of the block in pixels. The Vertical Size value will be the depth of the block in pixels, i.e. the number of pixels along the 45 degree angle line. It’s recommended to have this value be slightly smaller than Horizontal Size to make each block seem to have a square top. The Depth Size value will be the height of the block in pixels. The pixel size of the rendered bitmap is determined by the dimensions of the main bitmap along with the size values above. If View From Right in Draw Settings is checked, the overview will be looking down on the bitmap from the right, i.e. the depth lines will go up and to the right. When unchecked the overview will be looking down from the left, i.e. the lines will go up and to the left. If Merge Blocks Together in Draw Settings is checked, adjacent blocks will have the edges between them removed so they look like one object. When unchecked each block will appear individually with the edges between them apparent.

If Bitmap Is 3D is set, this operates on the 3D bitmap within the main bitmap, and creates an orthographic 3D overview of the 3D bitmap, i.e. a non-perspective view composed of only orthogonal and 45 degree angle lines, with the result looking like a stack of overview scenes created by the 2D overview rendering above layered on top of each other. The view will be looking down on and across the top of the 3D bitmap, where the top level of the 3D bitmap becomes the face closest to you. In the Draw Settings dialog, the Horizontal Size value will be the width of the block in pixels. The Vertical Size value will be the height of the block in pixels, where it’s recommended to have this value be the same as Horizontal Size to make each block seem to be a cube. The Depth Size value will be the depth of the block in pixels, i.e. the number of pixels along the 45 degree angle line. It’s recommended to have this value be slightly smaller than Horizontal and Vertical Size to make each block seem to be a cube.

Overview rendering can be done in color for 2D and 3D bitmaps. If the color bitmap is being shown when this command is run, the rendering will be placed in the color bitmap. The old contents of the color bitmap will contain the color to use for each block. For 3D overviews, if the color bitmap has different 3D dimensions than the monochrome bitmap, then the colors for blocks will instead be taken from the blend in the Replace Color dialog, which will be applied from the top to bottom levels.

For monochrome renderings, certain fields in the Obscure Draw Settings dialog can cause sections of this display to be filled in i.e. set to off pixels. If Shade Ground is checked, pixels surrounding the rendering will be filled in. If Shade Objects is set, pixels on the front walls of drawn blocks will be filled in. If Shade Sky is set, pixels on tops of blocks will be filled in. For color renderings, if Shade Objects is set, the walls facing each axis will be shaded based on the values in the X & Y & Z Light Vector fields in Obscure Draw Settings. The numbers should range from -100 to 100, where 0 is unchanged, negative numbers darken, and positive lighten.

Note a command like this shouldn’t be run twice in a row, as the second rendering will take the first rendering as input, which is probably not what you want and will look like garbage. Since this replaces the contents of the main or color bitmaps with the rendering, you should first copy the old bitmap contents to the temporary or extra bitmaps, or to the clipboard or save it to a file, and then copy it back if you want to run the command again (say after adjusting things in Draw Settings).

Render Pyramid: This creates a single point perspective view of the main bitmap. In the image you’ll be directly facing the bitmap with each on pixel being an infinitely long block, where all the blocks meet in the distance at a single vanishing point. The name “pyramid” for this view comes from that each block has a square base, and all the depth lines seem to meet at a point, which is similar to a pyramid. In the Draw Settings dialog, the Horizontal Size and Vertical Size values will be the width and height of each block in pixels. The pixel size of the rendered bitmap is determined by the dimensions of the main bitmap along with the size values above. The X Vanishing Point and Y Vanishing Point values will be the pixel coordinate where the vanishing point is, where this must lie within the bounds of the rendered bitmap. If Merge Blocks Together in Draw Settings is checked the blocks will be solid. When unchecked they will all be transparent where you can see every edge. A cool example use of this command is to have letters spelling something in the main bitmap, with the vanishing point above or below them, where you can see a 3D version of the letters going off to infinity.

The result will be a monochrome image placed in the main bitmap (replacing the source bitmap) or a color image, based on which bitmap is active when the command is run. For monochrome renderings, if Shade Ground in the Obscure Draw Settings dialog is checked, pixels surrounding the rendering will be filled in with off pixels. If Shade Objects is set, pixels on the front walls of drawn blocks will be filled in with off pixels.

For color renderings, the background will always be white, lines will be in the Edge Color setting from the Obscure Draw Settings dialog, the front face of blocks will be in the Object Color, and the sides of blocks will be in Sky Color (High). If the Shade Objects flag in Obscure Draw Settings is on, then the color of sides of blocks will be based on which way the side is facing: The top side of blocks will be in Sky Color (High), the bottom side of blocks will be in Sky Color (Low), the left side of blocks will be in Ground Color (High), and the right side of blocks will be in Ground Color (Low).

Life Generate: This treats the main bitmap as a board of the game of “Life”, as invented by mathematician John Conway in 1970, where on pixels are “live” cells and off pixels “dead” cells, and produces the next generation. The rules for going to the next generation are: (1) Live cells with one or fewer neighbors, or four or more neighbors, among the eight adjacent cells die. (2) Dead cells with exactly three neighbors become live. If Edge Behavior is set to Torus Wrapping, then the board is considered to wrap around between left & right and top & bottom. If Edge Behavior is anything else, then off the edge of the board is always considered dead cells.

Life Generate will operate on the color bitmap when it’s active. Color life is like monochrome life except each cell is displayed in a color of the rainbow. When a new cell is born, its color is the midpoint among the colors of its three parent cells. For example a red cell and two green cells will produce a yellowish green cell. Note Color life makes use of the temporary color bitmap to determine which cells are actually alive and what color they should be, where if the temporary color bitmap doesn’t exist, each cell will be initialized to a random color of the rainbow.

Life Generate automatically increments the Current Generation field in File Settings. If the Generation Cutoff field is non-zero, then once the Current Generation value reaches or passes this number, Life Generate will do nothing. This allows one to use Autorepeat to generate a specific number of Life generations and to automatically stop once they’re completed.

Open Wireframe...: This opens a Daedalus wireframe file into memory. Such a file is basically just a list of coordinate pairs in three dimensional space indicating line segments. Once in memory you won’t be able to see or do anything with it until some of the other commands on the Draw menu are run.

Save Wireframe...: This saves the current wireframe scene in memory to a file.

Picture File: This submenu allows Daedalus to output images in Windows metafile format, a vector format that uses lines instead of pixels. The Windows metafile format may be opened or pasted into programs such as Microsoft Word, in order to produce printouts that aren’t pixelated.

Save Wireframe Picture...: This saves the current wireframe scene in memory to a Windows metafile.

Copy Wireframe Picture: This copies the current wireframe scene in memory to the Windows clipboard.

Make Wireframe Bitmap Overview: This creates a wireframe scene in memory. It will contain the contents of the main bitmap, where each on pixel in the bitmap becomes a 3D block. The wireframe will contain two planes of edges along the top and bottom faces, with vertical lines connecting the corners between them, and look like the graphic created by Render Bitmap Overview. In the Draw Settings dialog, the Horizontal Size and Vertical Size values indicate the number of draw units wide or long each line segment will be. The Depth Size value indicates the height of each block in draw units. If Depth Size is 0, then the top and bottom planes will become one and the vertical connecting lines will disappear, all line segments being within a single plane. The Horizontal Size Bias and Vertical Size Bias values are similar to fields in the Zoom Bias dialog, and allow walls in wireframes representing Mazes to be a different thickness than passages. The numbers here will be the length of line segments corresponding to even numbered rows and columns in the bitmap. For example, if Horizontal Size is 10 and Horizontal Size Bias is 5, then horizontal walls will be 5 units wide and passages 15 units. If these values are 0, then the front and back planes of walls will become one and the connecting edges will disappear, since they have no thickness. If Merge Blocks Together in Draw Settings is checked, adjacent blocks will appear to be one solid structure. When unchecked the blocks will remain separate where you can see the edges between them.

If Bitmap Is 3D is set, this creates a wireframe file containing the contents of the 3D bitmap within the main bitmap, where each on pixel becomes a 3D block. This will look like the graphic created by Render Bitmap Overview for 3D bitmaps. In the Draw Settings dialog, the Horizontal Size and Vertical Size and Depth Size values will indicate the size of each block. If Merge Blocks Together in Draw Settings is checked, adjoining blocks will appear to be one solid structure. When unchecked the blocks will remain separate where you can see the edges between them.

Render Wireframe Perspective: This draws a perspective view of the wireframe file in memory within the current size of the main bitmap. The bitmap will be erased with the wall color, and everything on it will be drawn using the passage color. In the Draw Settings dialog, the coordinates you’re viewing the scene from are specified in the X and Y and Z Starting Location fields. The angle you’re facing is specified in the Viewing Angle Theta field, and the amount you’re looking up or down is in the Vertical Pitch Phi field. See the Move With Arrow Keys checkbox in Draw Settings for a way to make the dot movement keys change the viewing location and viewing angle here, allowing you to walk around through the 3D perspective scene.

If Show Color Bitmap is set, this instead generates a color display of the wireframe instead of just a black and white one, and draws a perspective view of the wireframe in memory within the current size of the color bitmap. All fields in the Draw Settings dialog that affect the monochrome rendering affect this color rendering in exactly the same way. See the Obscure Draw Settings dialog for various other settings that affect the way this color scene is drawn.

Render Wireframe Aerial: This simple command draws a simplified non-perspective view of the wireframe in memory. It will be as if you’re looking straight down on the scene from above. Draw coordinates will map to pixels, where a line segment ten draw units long will be ten pixels long. The bitmap will be resized to exactly fit the bounds of all the line segments.

Open Patches...: This opens a Daedalus patch file into memory. Such a file is basically a list of coordinate triplets in three dimensional space indicating triangular patches. For each triangle it’s indicated what edges are true edges as opposed to just an invisible place where it meets another triangle in the same plane, e.g. a square patch is created by placing two triangle patches together. The file format also has the ability to set or change the color to use for patches. Once in memory you won’t be able to see or do anything with the loaded file until some of the other commands on the Draw menu are run.

Save Patches...: This saves the current patch scene in memory to a file.

Make Patch Bitmap Overview: This creates a new patch scene in memory. It will contain the contents of the main bitmap, where each on pixel in the bitmap becomes a 3D block. This will look exactly like the result generated with Make Wireframe Bitmap Overview, except here the blocks will have solid faces. In the Draw Settings dialog, the Horizontal, Vertical, and Depth Size values, the Horizontal and Vertical Size Bias values, and the Merge Blocks Together checkbox, mean the exact same thing here as they do in Make Wireframe Bitmap Overview. Note all patches generated by this command cover square or rectangle areas, even though patch scenes are allowed to contain triangle patches too, as seen in the SOLIDS.DP sample file.

If Bitmap Is 3D is set, this creates a patch file containing the contents of the 3D bitmap within the main bitmap, where each on pixel becomes a 3D block. This will look exactly like the result generated by Make Wireframe Bitmap Overview for 3D bitmaps, except here the blocks will have solid faces. In the Draw Settings dialog, the Horizontal, Vertical, and Depth Size values, and the Merge Blocks Together checkbox, mean the exact same thing here as they do in Make Wireframe Bitmap Overview.

If the color bitmap exists, this will also write out colors to use for the patches, instead of letting all patches have their color defined by the Object Color draw setting at render time. The color written for each block will be taken from the corresponding pixel on the color bitmap.

Render Patch Perspective: This is just like Render Wireframe Perspective except it operates on the patch file in memory instead of the wireframe file. This draws a perspective view of the patch file in memory within the current size of the main bitmap. In the Draw Settings dialog, the X and Y and Z Starting Location fields, the Viewing Angle Theta and Vertical Pitch Phi fields, and the Move With Arrow Keys checkbox, mean the exact same thing here as they do in Render Wireframe Perspective. Because the main bitmap is monochrome, the colors of patches are ignored here, where all patches and the background are the wall color, and all edges and lines are the passage color. See the Obscure Draw Settings dialog for various other settings that affect the way this monochrome scene is drawn.

If Show Color Bitmap is set, this instead generates a color display of the patch file instead of just a black and white one, and draws a perspective view of the patch file in memory within the current size of the color bitmap. All fields in the Draw Settings dialog that affect the monochrome rendering affect this color rendering in exactly the same way. See the Obscure Draw Settings dialog for various other settings that affect the way this color scene is drawn.

Convert Patches To Wireframe: This simple command converts a patch file in memory to a wireframe file in memory. The edge of each polygon will become a line segment in the new wireframe. This isn’t that useful because everything Daedalus can create a patch file for, it can also directly create a wireframe for. This can however be used on external patch files like the SOLIDS.DP sample file.

 

OTHER FEATURES OF DAEDALUS

Mouse Clicks: Clicking the left mouse button on the window, when a bitmap is being displayed, will teleport the dot to the location you click. Clicking the left mouse button on the window, when the 3D first person inside view is being displayed, will do a movement command. Specifically clicking in the top quadrant will move forward, clicking in the bottom quadrant will move backward, clicking the left quadrant will rotate left, and clicking the right quadrant will rotate right. Also for the inside view of a 3D Maze, clicking in the upper 1/4 of the top quadrant will move up, and clicking in the bottom 1/4 of the bottom quadrant will move down. Clicking the right mouse button on the window at any time will toggle the Chase Mouse Point setting.

Mouse drag: When the Drag Move Dot setting is on, you can use the mouse to draw on the screen in addition to just setting the location of the dot when you click. Clicking and dragging the mouse will draw a line under the pointer, using the Drag Is Erase color. Shift+clicking will draw a line from the last location clicked to the current location. Control+clicking will draw a box, and Control+shift+clicking will draw a filled in box.

Mouse clicks stay on grid: When clicking the mouse on the bitmap, if either the Move By Two or Drag By Two settings are on, the coordinates of the pixel the dot is teleported to will have the same oddness or evenness as the original coordinates. This helps when drawing the outline of or solution to a Maze with the mouse, as it will ensure you stay over the same type of pixel as you click around.

Scroll Bars: The window scroll bars in Daedalus work as one would expect. When a bitmap is being displayed, and it doesn’t fill the entire window, the scroll bars will move the bitmap around within the window. When the bitmap’s display is larger than the window, the scroll bars will determine which part of the bitmap is shown.

Entering Colors: In the Set Colors dialog, in the Replace Color dialog, and in the Obscure Draw Settings dialog, specifying colors may be done in several ways. You can select a color from the dropdown, where the dropdown shows the 16 default Windows colors, or you can enter a color manually. Daedalus recognizes the 16 strings in the dropdown, in addition to “DkGray”, “Orange”, “Pink”, “Brown”, “Olive” (same as “Maize”), “Navy” (same as “DkBlue”), “Violet” (same as “Purple”), “Teal” (same as “DkCyan”), “Grey” (same as “Gray”), “Lime” (same as “Green”), “Fuchsia” (same as “Magenta”), and “Aqua” (same as “Cyan”). The 28 colors mentioned above may also be entered as just the numbers from 0 to 27 respectively. If you enter “???” Daedalus will translate it into a random color of the rainbow, and if you enter “????” Daedalus will translate it into a random color period. You can also enter a color as an RGB value, e.g. “rgb 50 100 150”, where the three numbers are the red intensity, green intensity, and blue intensity, which can range from 0 to 255. Typing “grayn” followed by a number will indicate a grayscale of that intensity. For example, “grayn 100” is equivalent to “rgb 100 100 100”. Typing “hue” followed by a number from 0 to 360 will result in a color of the rainbow, where 0 is red, 120 is green, and so on. This color can be modified by the pattern settings in the Replace Color dialog. Finally, entering “dlg” for the color will invoke the Windows Color picker dialog, where you can visually select among a palette of colors or specify a color in terms of red/green/blue or hue/saturation/luminosity. When you leave the Color dialog, its current color will be used for that field.

You can also specify colors in terms of other colors. If you type “light” followed by a color, the color used will be a lighter version of the color in question, e.g. “light brown” for a tan color. If you type “dark” followed by a color, the color used will be a darker version of the color. If you type “shade” followed by a color and then a number from -100 to 100, the color will be darkened (for negative numbers) or lightened (for positive numbers) appropriately. The farther the shading number from 0, the darker or lighter the color. If you type “blend” followed by two colors, the resulting color will be half way between the two colors following, e.g. “blend red orange” for a hot reddish orange color. Finally, colors can be specified using the Daedalus scripting language syntax, in which the string typed will be parsed as an expression.

Screen saver: Daedalus can act as a Windows screen saver. To use it as one, copy the DAEDALUS.EXE executable to Daedalus.scr in your Windows system directory, which is usually C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32 (or C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM on old Win9x systems). The right directory is one that has other .scr extension screen savers in it. Once installed, in Windows select Start / Settings / Control Panel / Display / Screen Saver, and pick “Daedalus” in the list. When Previewed or when started as a screen saver, a first person animation of randomly roaming a Maze will be shown by default.

If the file “daedalus.ds” exists in the same directory as Daedalus.scr, that script will be loaded on startup instead of the above behavior. You can’t set an unlock password when Daedalus is running as a screen saver, and the Settings button won’t do anything other than show the same animation in a window. However the script file allows the behavior to be arbitrarily customized. Daedalus knows to act as a screen saver when Windows invokes it with specific command switches, and exit immediately when a key is pressed or the mouse is moved. “DAEDALUS /s” (run screen saver) will run in full screen mode. “DAEDALUS /c” and “DAEDALUS /a” (configure screen saver) will run in windowed mode. “DAEDALUS /p” (preview screen saver) will do nothing. One can run DAEDALUS.EXE with these switches to test its screen saver functionality.

If Daedalus is invoked as “DAEDALUS /w” it will run in windowless mode. It won’t show its main window, but will instead run the script “daedalus.ds” if present, then immediately exit. This allows Daedalus to be invoked from batch files without a window getting in the way. More generally, if “daedalus.ds” exists in the same directory as the Daedalus executable, it will be run as a script on startup.

 

DAEDALUS EXAMPLES

Daedalus has many options, however how to use them to implement specific scenarios related to Mazes may not be obvious. Below are steps to use Daedalus to accomplish two common scenarios:

********************  Custom Maze Creation  ********************

Scenario goal: Create a Maze within a custom irregular shape:

1: Get the bitmap containing the shape you want in Daedalus: Use a “File / Open” command or paste in a bitmap format from the clipboard. You can also use Daedalus commands to draw the shape in the program itself. For example, turn on “Dot / Drag Move Dot”, then click and drag the mouse to draw the outline of your shape. After the bitmap is in the program, select “Color / Bitmap / Put To Bitmap (Nearest)” to ensure the contents are in the main monochrome bitmap if they aren’t already. (Daedalus Maze creation commands work with monochrome bitmaps, because they need to know exactly what should be considered a wall and what should be considered a passage.)

2: Establish a solid area to make your Maze within: If the starting picture has just a border, first fill in the interior of that shape, so afterward passages can be carved within it. To do that, click the mouse somewhere inside the shape, and select “Bitmap / Fill At Dot”. That should give a white shape with a black background.

3: Ensure white pixels form the shape or wall color, and black pixels are the background or passage color (at least for now): If they’re reversed, then select the command “Bitmap / All / Invert All” to swap them. (By default Daedalus considers white or “on” to be wall, and black or “off” to be passage.)

4: Run “Maze / Expand Set”: That will zoom the bitmap, so that each pixel in the old bitmap becomes a 3x3 block able to fit a passage within, and so there are no stray pixels after the Maze is created.

5: Create the Maze: Run “Create / Partial Create / Kruskal Passages” and it will fill the shape with Maze passages (as opposed to creating a new Maze from scratch that fills the entire bitmap replacing what’s already present).

6: Add an entrance and exit: You can do this in another program, in Daedalus itself with direct pixel editing, or with the “Maze / Add / Add Entrance” and “Add Exit” commands.

7: Make other desired adjustments: Orthogonal Mazes in Daedalus are initially made such that passages and walls are just one pixel. Hence you first create a raw low level Maze with the plan you want, then zoom it and color it and such to have the high level look you want. For example, select “Zoom Bias” and ok the dialog to make passages thinner than walls (recommended), then select “Invert All” again so walls are black and the passage background is white (recommended for printing).

8: Do things with the Maze: Save it using “Save Bitmap”, copy it to the clipboard using “Edit / Copy”, print it using “Print”, and so on. You may want to also save after step #6 if you want a raw Maze that Daedalus can work with, such as solve, do a first person walk through, etc.

********************  Custom Maze Solving  ********************

Scenario goal: Solve a Maze with irregular passages from an external source:

1: Get the bitmap containing the Maze you want to solve in Daedalus: Use a “File / Open” command or paste in a bitmap format from the clipboard. For example, visit http://www.astrolog.org/labyrnth/art.htm, right click on any of the Maze pictures and select “Copy”, then “Edit / Paste” in Daedalus. After the bitmap is in the program, select “Color / Bitmap / Put To Bitmap (Nearest)” to ensure the contents are in the main monochrome bitmap if they aren’t already. (Daedalus Maze solving commands operate on monochrome bitmaps, because they need to know exactly what should be considered a wall and what should be considered a passage.)

2: Ensure white pixels form the Maze or wall color, and black pixels are the background or passage color (at least for now): If they’re reversed, then select the command “Bitmap / All / Invert All” to swap them. (By default Daedalus considers white or “on” to be wall, and black or “off” to be passage.)

3: Ensure the Maze has no shortcuts: The shortest path from the start of a Maze to the end of the Maze, when both points are on the outside border, likely just goes around the outside of the Maze instead of through it. Running the command “Bitmap / Collapse To Set” will trim off any rows and columns of space around the outside of the Maze, which likely seals off any way from start to end around the outside. However, that may not be enough if there are designs surrounding the Maze for the collapse command to catch on. In such a case it will be necessary to manually remove the designs, or add walls cutting off such shortcuts. For example, turn on “Dot / Drag Move Dot”, then click and drag the mouse to draw walls from the boundary of the Maze to the edge of the bitmap.

4: Choose the start and end points: Click the mouse at the start point, then select “Dot / 2nd Dot / Set To Dot”. Then click the mouse at the end point. Also inside “Maze / Maze Settings”, turn on “Solve Fillers Consider Dots As Exits”. (That setting ensures the solving actually finds a path between the two dots, instead of just from one dot to the edge of the bitmap, which escapes the Maze.)

5: Solve the Maze: Turn on “Color / Show Color Bitmap”. Then select “Solve / Find Shortest Path”. The result will be the Maze in solved form, with the passages, walls, and solution path in different colors.

6: Make desired adjustments: For example, select “Color / Replace Color” and exchange Black with Red (turn on “Swap Instead Of Replace” in the dialog). Select it again and exchange Black with White. That will have walls be black, the passage background be white, and the solution path red (which looks good when printing).

7: Do things with the solution: Save it using “Save Bitmap”, copy it to the clipboard using “Edit / Copy”, print it using “Print”, and so on.

 

DAEDALUS FILES

DAE32ZIP.EXE: This is the installation file for Daedalus 3.2. To install, just download this program and run it. Inside are all the files below, which will be extracted from this archive file and copied into a directory or folder you specify, or C:\DAEDALUS by default. After unpacking, DAE32ZIP.EXE is no longer needed to run the program, so you can delete it if you wish. To uninstall, you only need to delete the installation directory and the files within it, and the Daedalus program group setup added to the Windows Programs menu. Daedalus doesn’t add or change any system DLL’s or edit the registry in any way, although it will by default register itself as the owner of four custom file extensions. These are .DS for Daedalus scripts, .D3 for Daedalus 3D bitmaps, .DW for Daedalus wireframe files, and .DP for Daedalus patch files.

DAEDALUS.EXE: This is the main Daedalus executable. Double click on this file’s icon or type “daedalus” from a command prompt to start the program. If you installed by running the setup program, you can also go to the Start menu and select All Programs / Daedalus / Daedalus 3.2 to start the program, as the unpacking program will create a “Daedalus” program group for you.

DAEDALUS.HTM: This is the documentation page you’re currently reading. The Open Documentation menu command in the program will display this file.

CHANGES.HTM: This is another HTML documentation file, and describes the new features, changes, and bug fixes in Daedalus 3.2, that weren’t in the previous version. This file is only useful if you’re already familiar with Daedalus 3.1 or before and want to know what the newest version offers.

SCRIPT.HTM: Another HTML documentation file, this contains advanced information describing the details of the Daedalus scripting language, and how to write macros or script files using it, to make your own games and such.

LICENSE.HTM: Another HTML documentation file, this is the Daedalus license, containing legal information on how you can use the program. Daedalus uses the GNU General Public License (GPL).

DAEDALUS.URL: This is a Windows URL file, which contains a pointer to the Daedalus homepage on the Web. This is like the files in your browser’s favorites list, where double clicking on it will open the Daedalus homepage in your default browser. The Open Website menu command in the program will invoke this file.

ESCHER.D3 & CASTLE.D3: These are sample 3D bitmap files, which may be loaded into Daedalus with the Open command on the 3D Bitmap submenu. They aren’t Mazes, but are still interesting. The first is of an Escher room with staircases at different angles, similar to that seen in M. C. Escher’s “Relativity”. The second is of a castle, with a tower at each corner and another tower in the middle. To better see these images, after loading use the Render Bitmap Overview command. To automatically view them, load the DEMOS.DS script file and press F8 and Shift+F8.

SOLIDS.DP: This is a sample Daedalus patch file, which may be loaded into the program with the Open Patches command on the Draw menu. This file isn’t related to Mazes, but is still interesting. This contains a definition of the five platonic solids, along with other shapes like a sphere, torus, ring, and crystal, all in different colors, and all hovering over a warped surface. To create an image with this, after loading use the Render Patch Perspective command. To get a better view of the solids, before rendering bring up the Draw Settings dialog and set Y Starting Location to 700, Z Starting Location to 300, Viewing Angle to 180, and Vertical Pitch to 20. To automatically view them, load the DEMOS.DS script file and press F11.

*.DS: These 28 files are sample script files, which may be opened by Daedalus and executed by selecting the appropriate command on the Run Script submenu, by selecting the script’s file in the Open Script dialog on the Macros submenu, by double clicking the script’s file in Windows, or by selecting the appropriate icon in the Daedalus program group. The files map to the commands on the Run Script submenu, and the command’s keyboard shortcut, as follows:

1   DEMOS.DS     Demos                  Alt+1

2   WORDMAZE.DS  Word Mazes             Alt+2

3   GIGAMAZE.DS  World's Largest Maze   Alt+3

4   MAZE4D.DS    4D Mazes               Alt+4

5   MAZE5D.DS    5D Mazes               Alt+5

6   DRAGON.DS    Dragonslayer Game      Alt+6

7   PACMAN.DS    Pac-Man Game           Alt+7

8   SOKOBAN.DS   Sokoban Game           Alt+8

9   HUNGER.DS    The Hunger Games       Alt+9

10  SURVMAZ1.DS  Survivor Maze #1       Alt+Shift+1

11  SURVMAZ2.DS  Survivor Maze #2       Alt+Shift+2

12  SURVMAZ3.DS  Survivor Maze #3       Alt+Shift+3

13  SURVMAZ4.DS  Survivor Maze #4       Alt+Shift+4

14  SURVMAZ5.DS  Survivor Maze #5       Alt+Shift+5

15  SURVMAZ6.DS  Survivor Maze #6       Alt+Shift+6

16  SURVMAZ7.DS  Survivor Maze #7       Alt+Shift+7

17  SURVMAZ8.DS  Survivor Maze #8       Alt+Shift+8

18  SURVMAZ9.DS  Survivor Maze #9       Alt+Shift+9

19  SURVMAZ0.DS  Survivor Maze #10      Alt+Shift+0

20  CARLETON.DS  Carleton Farm Maze #1  Alt+Ctrl+1

21  CARLETON.DS  Carleton Farm Maze #2  Alt+Ctrl+2

22  STOCKER.DS   Stocker Farms Maze     Alt+Ctrl+3

23  GLACIER.DS   Glacier Maze           Alt+Ctrl+4

24  SAFARI.DS    Safari Maze            Alt+Ctrl+5

25  MOUSEMAZ.DS  Mouse Maze             Alt+Ctrl+6

26  SQUARED.DS   Survivor Squares Game  Alt+Ctrl+7

27  MANDY.DS     Mandelbrot Set         Alt+Ctrl+8

28  PENTRIS.DS   Pentris Game           Alt+Ctrl+9

SOURCES: This subdirectory contains a copy of the C++ source code and related files used to compile the Daedalus executable. If the scripting language isn’t powerful enough, you can modify the program itself if you want. :) The Daedalus source code will compile a command line only version, if the #define WIN line in util.h is commented out. Without a menu interface, the program can only be run in the console and interacted with using the command line and scripting language. However this does allow Daedalus Mazes to be generated on non-Windows systems.

HUNGER: This subdirectory contains the texture bitmaps and sound files used by the “Hunger Games” script.

 

DAEDALUS HISTORY

This is a list of the 14 versions of Daedalus that have been released so far. The columns show the version number, the date of public release, the size of the main DAEDALUS.EXE executable, the number of menu commands, the number of .DS extension script files included, the size of all source files, and main things introduced.

Num Ver        Date  EXE  Menu  DS   Src   Features

1   1.0  12/31/2000  230K  280   -   490K  Initial version

2   1.1   9/22/2001  268K  304   -   557K  Smooth 3D view

3   1.2   8/22/2002  333K  370   5   729K  Macros, game scripts

4   1.3   4/19/2003  384K  378   9   842K  Texture mapping, Hypermazes

5   1.4  12/31/2003  412K  381  10  1025K  Source code included, polished Mazes

6   2.0   5/01/2005  510K  412  15  1144K  32 bit executable, recursive fractal Mazes

7   2.1  12/31/2005  534K  420  17  1205K  GNU license, C++ source code

8   2.2  12/31/2007  524K  430  20  1266K  Sidewinder Mazes, Trémaux’s & chain solving

9   2.3   5/17/2010  602K  440  22  1323K  Custom Labyrinths, improved setup

10  2.4   3/11/2013  602K  444  26  1364K  Hunger Games and other new scripts

11  2.5  10/11/2013  618K  446  26  1413K  Improved Hunger Games, bug fixes

12  3.0   9/01/2014  795K  451  26  1410K  C++ classes, Hilbert curve Labyrinths

13  3.1   6/01/2015  811K  462  28  1454K  True Prim's Algorithm, Pentris script

14  3.2   8/31/2016  852K  465  28  1523K  Growing Forest Algorithm, Metafile output

 

LICENSE

IMPORTANT NOTICE: Daedalus and all Maze generation and general graphics routines used in this program are Copyright (C) 1998-2016 by Walter D. Pullen. Permission is granted to freely use, modify, and distribute these routines provided these credits and notices remain unmodified with any altered or distributed versions of the program. The user does have all rights to Mazes and other graphic output they make in Daedalus, like a novel created in a word processor.

More formally: This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful and inspiring, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details, a copy of which is in the LICENSE.HTM included with Daedalus, and at http://www.gnu.org

O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O

*       Walter D. "Cruiser1" Pullen :)       !       Astara@msn.com       *

O Find your way through life's Maze: http://www.astrolog.org/labyrnth.htm O

* "Who am I, What am I?  As I am, I am not.  But as we are, I AM.  And to *

O you my creation, My Perfect Love is your Perfect Freedom. And I will be O

* with you forever and ever, until the End, and then forever more." - GOD *

O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O*O